1887

Abstract

Thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimetry of a range of bacteria of different heat resistances were compared. Equations were derived to calculate the rate at which the numbers of viable organisms in a calorimeter decline as the temperature is raised at a constant rate. Vegetative bacteria scanned at 10°C min showed multi-peaked thermograms with four major peaks (denoted and ) occurring in the regions 68–73, 77–84, 89–99 and 105–110°C respectively. Exceptions were that peak (the largest peak) occurred at 79–82°C in and an additional peak, , was detected in at 119°C. At temperatures below the main peak there were major differences in thermograms between species. There was a direct relationship between the onset of thermal denaturation and the thermoresistance of different organisms. Heat-sensitive organisms displayed thermogram features which were absent in the more heat-resistant types. When samples were cooled to 5°C and re-heated, a small endothermic peak, , was observed at the same temperature as . Peaks and were identified as the melting endotherms of DNA. In all vegetative organisms examined, maximum death rates, computed from published and values, occurred at temperatures above the onset of thermal denaturation, i.e. cell death and irreversible denaturation of cell components occurred within the same temperature range.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-132-4-939
1986-04-01
2022-01-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/132/4/mic-132-4-939.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-132-4-939&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ashe G. B., Steim J. M. 1971; Membrane transitions in Gram-positive bacteria. Biochimica et biophysica acta 233:810–814
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Baumann P., Furniss A. L., Lee J. V. 1984; Genus Vibrio.. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology vol. 1 pp 518–538 Editor Kreig N. R., Holt J. G. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.;
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beuchat L. R. 1978; Injury and repair of Gram- negative bacteria with special consideration of the involvement of the cytoplasmic membrane. Advances in Applied Microbiology 23:219–243
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Campbell L. L., Pace B. 1968; Paper III: physiology of growth at high temperatures. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 31:24–35
    [Google Scholar]
  5. COLLINS-THOMPSON D. L., SORHANG T., WITTER L. D., Ordal Z. J. 1972; Taxonomic consideration of Microbacterium lactium, Microbacterium fla- vum and Microbacterium thermosphactum. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 22:65–72
    [Google Scholar]
  6. DeLey J. 1970; Re-examination of the association between melting point, buoyant density and chemical base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid. Journal of Bacteriology 101:738–754
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dove W. F., Davidson N. 1962; Cation effects on the denaturation of DNA. Journal of Molecular Biology 5:467–478
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Epstein P., Yu S. S., Li H. J. 1974; Helix-coil transition and conformational studies of nucleo- protein: poly(L-arginine)- and poly(L-arginine87, l- omithinel3)-DNA complexes. I. Thermal denaturation. Biochemistry 13:3706–3712
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Farrow J. A. E., Jones D., Phillips B. A., Collins M. D. 1983; Taxonomic studies on some group D streptococci. Journal of General Microbiology 129:1423–1432
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Flink I., Pettijohn D. E. 1975; Polyamines stabilise DNA folds. Nature London: 253:62–63
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gardner G. A. 1981; Brochothrix thermosphacta (Microbacterium thermosphactum) in the spoilage of meats: a review. In Psychrotrophic Micro-organisms in Spoilage and Pathogenicity pp 139–173 Editor Roberts T. A., Hobbs G., Christian J. H. B., Skovgaard N. London & New York: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Gibson T., Gordon R. E. 1974; Genus Bacillus. In Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. 8th edn pp 529–550 Editor Buchanan R. E., Gibbons N. E. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.;
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gonda K., Koga S. 1973; Low-temperature thermograms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 19:393–396
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Greer S., Zamenhof S. 1962; Studies on depurination of DNA by heat. Journal of Molecular Biology 4:123–141
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hurst A. 1984; Revival of vegetative bacteria after sublethal heating. In The Revival of Injured Microbes pp 77–103 Editor Andrew M. H. E., Russell. A. D. London: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hurst A., Hughes A. 1978; Stability of ribosomes of Staphylococcus aureus S6 sublethally heated in different buffers. Journal of Bacteriology 133:564–568
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lawton W. D., Morris B. C., Burrows T. W. 1968; Gene transfer in strains of Pasteurella pseudotuberculosis. Journal of General Microbiology 52:25–34
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Lee A. C., Goepfert J. M. 1975; Influence of selected solutes on thermally induced death and injury in Salmonella typhimurium. Journal of Milk and Food Technology 38:195–200
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lindahl T., Nyberg B. 1972; Rate of depurination of native deoxyribonucleic acid. Biochemistry 11:3610–3618
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Luria S. E. 1960; The bacterial protoplasm: composition and organisation. In The Bacteria I pp 1–34 Editor Gunsalus I. C., Stanier R. Y. New York & London: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  21. McElhaney R. N. 1982; The use of differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis in studies of model and biological membranes. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 30:229–259
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Maeda Y., Noguchi S., Koga S. 1974; Differential scanning calorimetric study of spontaneous germination of Bacillus megaterium spores by water vapour. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 20:11–19
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Maeda Y., Teramoto Y., Koga S. 1975; Calorimetric study on heat activation of Bacillus cereus spores. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 21:119–122
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Marmur J., Doty P. 1962; Determination of the base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid from its thermal denaturation temperature. Journal of Molecular Biology 5:109–118
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Morita R. Y. 1975; Psychrophilic bacteria. Bacteriological Reviews 39:144–167
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Olson J. C., Nottingham P. M. 1980; Temperature. In Microbial Ecology of Foods. vol. 1. (Factors Affecting Life and Death of Microorganisms) pp 1–37 Editor International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods London & New York: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Pellon J. R., Sinskey A. J. 1984; Heat induced damage to the bacterial chromosome and its repair. In The Revival of Injured Microbes. Society for Applied Bacteriology Symposium Series No.12 pp. 105–125 Editor Andrew M. H. E., Russell. A. D. London: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Pellon J. R., Ulmer K. M., Gomez R. F. 1980; Heat damage to the folded chromosome of E. coli K-12. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 40:358–364
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Pellon J. R., Gomez R. F., Sinskey A. J. 1982; Association of the E. coli nucleoid with protein synthesized during thermal treatments. In Heat Shock: from Bacteria to Man pp 121–125 Editor Schlesinger M. J., Ashburner M., Tissieres A. Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.;
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Pierson M. D., Gomez R. F., Martin S. E. 1978; The involvement of nucleic acids in bacterial injury. Advances in Applied Microbiology. 23:263–285
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Record M. T., Mazur S. J., Jr Melancon P., Roe J. H., Shaner S. L., Unger L. 1981; Double helical DNA: conformations, physical properties and interactions with ligands.. Annual Reviews of Biochemistry 50:997–1024
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sakazaki R. 1984; Genus Hafnia. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. vol. 1 pp 484–486 Editor Kreig N. R., Holt. J. G. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.;
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Schulze S. G., Epstein W., Solomon A. K. 1963; Cation transport in Escherichia coli. IV. Kinetics of net K uptake. Journal of General Physiology 47:329–346
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Shapiro R., Danzig M. 1972; Acidic hydrolysis of deoxycytidine and deoxyuridine derivatives. The general mechanism of deoxyribonucleoside hydrolysis.. Biochemistry 11:23–29
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Shapiro R., Klein R. S. 1966; The deamination of cytidine and cytosine by acidic buffer solutions. Mutagenic implications. Biochemistry. 5:2358–2362
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Sober H. A. editor 1970; Handbook of Biochemistry: Selected Data for Molecular Biology. 2nd edn: Boca Raton: CRC Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Stonington O. G., Pettijohn D. E. 1971; The folded chromosome of E. coli isolated in a protein DNA-RNA complex.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 68:6–9
    [Google Scholar]
  38. STUMBO C. R. 1965; Thermobacteriology in Food Processing. pp 58–59 New York & London: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Tesone S., Hughes A., Hurst A. 1981; Salt extends the upper temperature limit for growth of food poisoning bacteria. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 27:970–972
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Tomlins R. I., Ordal Z. J. 1976; Thermal injury and inactivation in vegetative bacteria. In Inhibition and Inactivation of Vegetative Microbes.. Society for Applied Bacteriology Symposium Series No. 5: pp 153–190 Editor Skinner F. A., Hugo W. B. London: Academic Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Van Cauwelaert F. H., Verbeke M. N. 1979; Differential scanning calorimetric observations concerning the activation mechanism of spores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 89:414–419
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Verbeke M. N., , Van Cauwelaert F. H., Jadot R. 1981; Calorimetric aspects of heat activation of spores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 98:915–921
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Verrips C. T., Kwast R. H. 1977; Heat resistance of Citrobacter freundii in media with various water activities. European Journal of Applied Microbiology. 4:225–231
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Worcel A., Burgi E. 1972; On the structure of the folded chromosome of E. coli. Journal of Molecular Biology. 71:127–147
    [Google Scholar]
  45. ZUBER H. 1979; Structure and function of enzymes from thermophilic microorganisms. In Strategies of Microbial Life in Extreme Environments,. Edited by M. Shilo. Berlin: Dahlem Konferenzen, Verlag Chemie. pp 393–415
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-132-4-939
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-132-4-939
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error