SUMMARY: Hyphae of growing on a medium deficient in amino acids elongated but produced relatively few branches. Branching was enhanced by three classes of compound: cytochalasins A and E, the calcium ionophores A23187 and ionomycin and proton ionophores such as tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS), carbonylcyanide -chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), and carbonylcyanide -trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). We suggest that the effects of cytochalasins reflect the disruption of a microfilament-based system for vesicle transport. Enhancement of branching by ionophores implicates cytoplasmic ions in the control of branch initiation. There may be links between these phenomena and the earlier discovery that a new point of proton entry precedes the emergence of a branch and predicts its locus.


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