The occurrence of a polysaccharide fraction of cell wall with toxic, granuloma-inducing and macrophage-stimulating activities was demonstrated. After fractionation of the lipid-extracted wall with 1 M-NaOH, three fractions were obtained: (1) an alkaliinsoluble fraction: (2) an alkali-soluble, acid-insoluble fraction and (3) an alkali-soluble, acid-soluble fraction. When the three fractions were injected into mice only fraction (1) was able to induce chronic lung inflammation, causing a marked loss in body weight and death at a dose of 6 mg per animal. Analysis of the stimulation of peritoneal macrophages of mice (measured by cell spreading on glass) after intraperitoneal injection of fraction 1 showed that 75% of the cells were able to spread even 20 d after inoculation.


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