1887

Abstract

We have examined the effects of wall populations on coexistence between strains of in the liquid phase of mixed (two-strain) chemostats. The wall populations of the two competing strains became established soon after the start of the cultures and, although the relative abundance of the strains in the liquid phase could change over time by several orders of magnitude, the composition of an established wall population did not change markedly. The bacterial strains examined could not displace an established wall population of a competing strain. The presence of a permanent wall population allowed a strain that was less fit in the liquid phase to coexist with a superior strain. The resulting coexistence did not require that the inferior strain attached to the vessel wall better than the superior strain. We believe that the coexistence developed because the inferior strain survived and reproduced on the vessel wall. The progeny from that wall population then provided replacements for the bacteria that the inferior strain lost through a selective disadvantage in the liquid phase of the culture. By replacing the chemostat vessel, hence eliminating the wall populations, we could distinguish between cases where the coexistence depended on the presence of a wall population and where it resulted from some alternative mechanism.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-131-5-1229
1985-05-01
2021-10-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/131/5/mic-131-5-1229.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-131-5-1229&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bungay H. R., Bungay M. L. 1968; Microbial interactions in continuous culture. Advances in Applied Microbiology 10:269–290
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Chao L., Cox E. C. 1983; Competition between high and low mutating strains of Escherichia coli. Evolution 37:125–134
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chao L., Levin B. R., Stewart F. M. 1977; A complex community in a simple habitat: an experimental study with bacteria and phage. Ecology 58:369–378
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chao L., Vargas C, Spear B. B., Cox E. C. 1983; Transposable elements as mutator genes in evolution. Nature London: 303633–635
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Contois D. E. 1959; Kinetics of bacterial growth: relationship between population density and specific growth rate of continuous cultures. Journal of General Microbiology 21:40–50
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cox E. C., Gibson T. C. 1974; Selection for high mutation rates in chemostats. Genetics 11:169–184
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dykhuizen D. 1978; Selection for tryptophan auxotrophs of Escherichia coli in glucose-limited chemostats as a test of the energy conservation hypothesis of evolution. Evolution 32:125–150
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dykhuizen D., Hartl D. 1983; Studies of selection using chemostats. Microbiological Reviews 47:150–168
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Edlin G., Lin L., Kudrna R. 1975; Lambda lysogens of E. coli reproduce more rapidly than non-lysogens. Nature London: 255:735–737
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Foster T. J., Davis M. A., Roberts D. E., Takeshita K., Kleckner N. 1981; Genetic organization of transposon Tn10. Cell 23:201–213
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Freter R., Stauffer E., Cleven D., Holdeman L., Moore W. 1983; Continuous-flow cultures as in vitro models of the ecology of large intestinal flora. Infection and Immunity 39:666–675
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Godwin D., Slater J. H. 1979; The influence of the growth environment on the stability of a drug resistant plasmid in Escherichia coli K12. Journal of General Microbiology 111:201–210
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hartl D., Dykhuizen D. 1979; A selectively driven molecular clock. Nature London: 281:230–231
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hsu S. B., Hubbell S., Waltman P. 1977; A mathematical theory for single-nutrient competition in continuous cultures of micro-organisms. SIAM Journal of Applied Mathematics 32:366–383
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jannasch H. W., Mateles R. I. 1974; Experimental bacterial ecology studied in continuous culture. Advances in Microbial Physiology 11:165–212
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kubitschek H. E. 1970 Research with Continuous Cultures New Jersey: Prentice-Hall;
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Larsen D. H., Dimmick R. L. 1964; Attachment and growth of bacteria on surfaces of continuous-culture devices. Journal of Bacteriology 88:1380–1387
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Levin B. R., Stewart F. M. 1980; The population biology of bacterial plasmids: a priori conditions for the existence of mobilizable nonconjugative factors. Genetics 87:209–228
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Meers J. L. 1973; Growth of bacteria in mixed cultures. CRC Critical Reviews in Microbiology 2:139–184
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Meers J. L., Tempest D. W. 1968; The influence of extracellular products on the behaviour of mixed microbial populations in magnesium-limited chemo-stat cultures. Journal of General Microbiolog 52:309–317
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Megee R. D. III, Drake J. F., Fredrickson A. G., Tsuchiya H. M. 1972; Studies in intermicrobial symbiosis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacil-luscasei. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 18:1733–1742
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Moser H. 1957; The dynamics of bacterial populations maintained in the chemostat. Publication, Carnegie Institute of Washington;614
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Munson R. J., Bridges B. A. 1964; 'Take-over' -an unusual selection process in steady-state cultures of Escherichia coli. Journal of General Microbiology 37:411–418
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Powell E. O. 1958; Criteria for the growth of contaminants and mutants in continuous culture. Journal of General Microbiology 18:259–268
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Shindala A., Bungay H. R., Krieg N. R., Culbert K. 1965; Mixed-culture interactions. Journal of Bacteriology 89:693–696
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Stewart F. M., Levin B. R. 1973; Partitioning of resources and outcome of interspecific competition: a model and some general considerations. American Naturalist 107:171–198
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Taylor P. A., Williams P. J. LeB. 1975; Theoretical studies on the coexistence of competing species under continuous-flow conditions. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 21:90–98
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Tempest D. W. 1970; The continuous cultivation of micro-organisms. I. Theory of the chemostat. Methods in Microbiology 2:260–276
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Veilleux B. G., Rowland I. 1981; Simulation of the rat intestinal ecosystem using a two-stage continuous culture system. Journal of General Microbiology 123:102–115
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Vogel H. J., Bonner D. M. 1956; Acetylornithin-ase of Escherichia coli: partial purification and some properties. Journal of Biological Chemistry 218:97–106
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Zamenhof S., Eichhorn H. H. 1967; Study of microbial evolution through loss of biosynthetic functions: establishment of “defective” mutants. Nature London: 216455–458
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-131-5-1229
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-131-5-1229
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error