1887

Abstract

Summary: Ethanol is the first reported compound which can induce germ tube formation in without the addition of any nitrogen-containing nutrients. Conditions controlling induction of germ tubes in by ethanol were investigated. Ethanol (17.1 mM) in buffered salts solution containing sodium bicarbonate induced 70 to 80% of yeast phase cells of to form germ tubes. Germ tubes could be induced by ethanol (0.08 to 340 mM) at temperatures ranging from 29 to 41 °C (optimum 37 °C) and at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 8.0 (optimum 5.75). The germ tubes averaged 11 μm in length after 6 h at 37 °C. The percentage of cells forming germ tubes decreased as the concentration of cells in the induction solution was increased above 4 x 10 cells ml. Germ tubes first appeared 45 to 60 min after continuous exposure to ethanol at 37 °C and all cells which formed germ tubes did so by 2 h. Germ tube length decreased as the pH was increased but was independent of the concentration of ethanol. Oxygen was required for germ tube formation. In addition to ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol and acetic acid could induce germ tube formation, whereas methanol could not. These results indicate that the cells must mobilize their endogenous nitrogen and probably carbohydrate reserves in order to initiate formation of germ tubes. The evidence is inconclusive as to whether ethanol itself must be metabolized for germ tube induction to occur, although it is not thought to act by a nonspecific interaction with the cell membrane.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-131-12-3303
1985-12-01
2021-05-10
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/131/12/mic-131-12-3303.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-131-12-3303&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ahrens J. C., Price M. R., Daneo-Moore L., Buckley H. R. 1983; Effects of culture density on the kinetics of germ tube formation in Candida albicans . Journal of General Microbiology 129:3001–3006
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bell W. M., Chaffin W. L. 1983; Effect of yeast growth conditions on yeast–mycelial transition in Candida albicans . Mycopathologia 84:41–44
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chattaway F. W., Holmes M. R., Barlow A. J. E. 1968; Cell wall composition of the mycelial and blastospore forms of Candida albicans . Journal of General Microbiology 51:367–376
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chiew Y. Y., Sullivan P. A., Shepherd M. G. 1982; The effects of ergosterol and alcohols on germ-tube formation and chitin synthase in Candida albicans . Canadian Journal of Biochemistry 60:15–20
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cochrane J. C., Cochrane V. W., Simon F. G., Spaeth J. 1963; Spore germination and carbon metabolism in Fusarium solani. I. Requirements for spore germination.. Phytopathology 53:1155–1160
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Evans E. G. V., Odds F. C., Richardson M. D., Holland K. T. 1975; Optimum conditions for initiation of filamentation in Candida albicans . Canadian Journal of Microbiology 21:338–342
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Land G. A., McDonald W. C., Stjernholm R. L., Friedman L. 1975; Factors affecting filamentation in Candida albicans: changes in respiratory activity of Candida albicans during filamentation.. Infection and Immunity 12:119–127
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Lange L. G. 1982; Nonoxidative ethanol metabolism: formation of fatty acid ethyl esters by cholesterol esterase.. Proceedings of the National Academv of Sciences of the United States of America 79:3954–3957
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Lee K. L., Buckley H. R., Campbell C. C. 1975; An amino acid liquid synthetic medium for the development of mycelial and yeast forms of Candida albicans . Sabouraudia 13:148–153
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Lieber C. S., DeCarli L. M. 1968; Ethanol oxidation by hepatic microsomes: adaptive increase after ethanol feeding.. Science 162:917–918
    [Google Scholar]
  11. MacDonald F. 1984; Secretion of inducible proteinase by pathogenic Candida species.. Sabouraudia 22:79–82
    [Google Scholar]
  12. McMeekin D. 1981; Initiation of branching in the germ tubes of Peronospora parasitica by alcohol.. Mycologia 73:252–262
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Mardon D., Balish E., Phillips A. W. 1969; Control of dimorphism in a biochemical variant of Candida albicans . Journal of Bacteriology 100:701–707
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Mattia E., Cassone A. 1979; Inducibility of germ-tube formation in Candida albicans at different phases of yeast growth.. Journal of General Microbiology 113:439–442
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Miller J. J., Halpern C. 1956; The metabolism of yeast sporulation. 1. Effect of certain metabolites and inhibitors.. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 2:519–537
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Mitchell L. H., Soll D. R. 1979; Commitment to germ tube or bud formation during release from stationary phase in Candida albicans . Experimental Cell Research 120:167–179
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Odds F. C. 1979 Candida and Candidosis Baltimore: University Park Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Panek A. 1962; Function of trehalose in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 100:422–425
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Paz E., Cochrane J. C., Cochrane V. W. 1984; Spore germination and carbon metabolism in Fusarium solani. VI. Ethanol metabolism and the biosynthesis of amino acids.. Experimental Mycology 8:1–12
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Pollack J. H., Hashimoto T. 1984; Ethanol contamination in commercial buffers: ethanol contaminating tris-maleate and other commercial buffers induces germ tube formation in Candida albicans . Applied and Environmental Microbiology 48:1051–1052
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ram S. P., Romana L. K., Shepherd M. G., Sullivan P. A. 1984; Exo-(l→3)-β-glucanase, autolysin and trehalase activities during yeast growth and germ-tube formation in Candida albicans . Journal of General Microbiology 130:1227–1236
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Rambeck W., Simon H. 1972; Decrease of glycogen and trehalose in yeast during starvation and during ethanol formation under the influence of propanol or ethanol.. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie 353:1107–1110
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Reynier M. 1969; Pyrazole inhibition and kinetic studies of ethanol and retinol oxidation catalyzed by rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase.. Acta chemica scan-dinavica 23:1119–1129
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Reynouard F., Lacroix J., Lacroix R., Combescot C. 1979; Influence de certains alcools sur la filamentation du Candida albicans en culture.. Annales pharmaceutiques françaises 37:213–216
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rüchel R. 1984; A variety of Candida proteinases and their possible targets of proteolytic attack in the host.. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Series A 257:266–274
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Samaranayake L. P., Hughes A., MacFarlane T. W. 1984; The proteolytic potential of Candida albicans in human saliva supplemented with glucose.. Journal of Medical Microbiology 17:13–22
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sevilla M. J., Landajuela L., Uruburu F. 1983; The effect of alcohols on the morphology of Aureobasidium pullulans . Current Microbiology 9:169–172
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Shepherd M. G., Sullivan P. A. 1976; The production and growth characteristics of yeast and mycelial forms of Candida albicans in continuous culture.. Journal of General Microbiology 93:361–370
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Shepherd M. G., Sullivan P. A. 1983; Candida albicans germ-tube formation with immobilized GlcNAc.. FEMS Microbiology Letters 17:167–170
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Simonetti N., Strippoli V., Cassone A. 1974; Yeast–mycelial conversion induced by N-acetyl-d-glucosamine in Candida albicans . Nature, London 250:344–346
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Soll D. R., Herman M. A. 1983; Growth and the inducibility of mycelium formation in Candida albicans: a single-cell analysis using a perfusion chamber.. Journal of General Microbiology 129:2809–2824
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Stewart P. R., Rodgers P. J. 1983; Fungal dimorphism.. In Fungal Differentiation, a Contemporary Synthesis pp 267–313 Edited by Smith J. E. New York: Marcel Dekker;
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Sullivan P. A., Shepherd M. G. 1982; Gratuitous induction by N-acetylmannosamine of germ tube formation and enzymes for N-acetylglucos- amine utilization in Candida albicans . Journal of Bacteriology 151:1118–1122
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Sullivan P. A., Chiew Y. Y., Molloy C., Templeton M. D., Shepherd M. G. 1983; An analysis of the metabolism and cell wall composition of Candida albicans during germ-tube formation.. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 29:1514–1525
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Sullivan P. A., McHugh N. J., Romana L. K., Shepherd M. G. 1984; The secretion of N-acetylglucosaminidase during germ-tube formation in Candida albicans . Journal of General Microbiology 130:2213–2218
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Tani Y., Yamada Y., Kamihara T. 1979; Morphological change in Candida tropicalis pK 233 caused by ethanol and its prevention by myoinositol.. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 91:351–355
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Weinhold A. R. 1963; Rhizomorph production by Armillaria mellea induced by ethanol and related compounds.. Science 142:1065–1066
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-131-12-3303
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-131-12-3303
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error