1887

Abstract

Regenerating spheroplasts of formed organized glucan nets in liquid culture. The nets consisted of interwoven microfibrils about 50 nm wide, but of an undetermined length. Partial acid hydrolysis of the polysaccharide showed the presence of chains of (1→3)- and (1→6)-linked glucose residues, but no intrachain (1→3) and(1→6) linkages. Periodate oxidation and GLC of the methylated glucan indicated a highly branched polymer (9·5% branch points). Sequential enzymic degradation of the isolated nets confirmed the presence of chains of (1→3)- and (1→6)-linked glucose residues. Degradation by (1→3) and (1→6)-glucanase released 23% (w/w) and 30% (w/w) respectively of the carbohydrate as glucose equivalents. The residual material was degraded by chitinase. Equal amounts of -acetylglucosamine and glucose equivalents were detected in the chitinase hydrolysate, suggesting a possible linkage between glucan and chitin. Our data indicate that the cell wall of contains at least two highly branched glucans with predominantly (1→3) or (1→6) linkages.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-5-1217
1984-05-01
2021-07-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/130/5/mic-130-5-1217.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-5-1217&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aspinall G. O., Ferrier R. J. 1957; A spectro-photometric method for the determination of periodate consumed during the oxidation of carbohydrates. Chemistry and Industry1216
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bacon J. S. D, Davidson E. D., Jones D., Taylor I. F. 1966; The location of chitin in the yeast cell wall. Biochemical Journal 101:36C–38C
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bishop C. T., Blank F., Gardner P. E. 1960; The cell wall polysaccharides of Candida albicans: glucan, mannanand chitin. Canadian Journal of Chemistry 38:869–881
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Borchardt L. G., Piper C. V. 1970; A gas chromatographic method for carbohydrates as alditol-acetates. Tappi 53:257–260
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bouveng H. O., Lindberg B. 1965; Hydrolysis of methylated polysaccharides. Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry 5:296–298
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cabib E., Roberts R., Bowers B. 1982; Synthesis of the yeast cell wall and its regulation. Annual Review of Biochemistry 51:763–793
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cassone A., Kerridge D., Gale E. F. 1979; Ultrastructuralchanges in the cell wall of Candida albicans following cessation of growth and their possible relationship to the development of polyene resistance. Journal of General Microbiology 110:339–349
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Conrad H. E. 1972; Methylation of carbohydrates with methylsulfinyl anion and methyl iodide in dimethylsulfoxide. Methylation of Aerobacter aerogenesA3(S1) capsular polysaccharide and 3-O-α-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid-d-mannose. Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry 6:361–364
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dawson R. M. C, Elliot D. C., Elliot W. W., Jones K. M. 1959 In Data for Biochemical Research p. 236 Oxford:: Oxford University Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dubois M., Gilles K. A., Hamilton J. K., Rebers P. A., Smith F. 1956; Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry 28:350–356
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Duffus J. H., Levi C., Manners D. J. 1982; Yeast cell wall glucans. Advances in Microbial Physiology 23:151–178
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fleet G. H., Manners D. J. 1977; The enzymic degradation of an alkali-soluble glucan from the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of General Microbiology 98:315–327
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gopal P., Sullivan P. A., Shepherd M. G. 1984; Metabolism of [14C]glucose by regenerating spheroplasts of Candida albicans. Journal of General Microbiology 130:325–335
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hakomori S.-I. 1964; A rapid permethylation of glycolipid and polysaccharide catalyzed by methylsulfinyl carbanion in dimethylsulfoxide. Journal of Biochemistry 55:205–208
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hay G. W., Lewis B. A., Smith F. 1965; Periodate oxidation of polysaccharides: general procedures. Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry 5:357–360
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Herbert D., Phillips R. J., Strange R. E. 1971; Chemical analysis of microbial cells. Methods in Microbiology 5B:272–277
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kitamura K., Yamamoto Y. 1972; Purification and properties of an enzyme, Zymolyase, which lyses viable yeast cells. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 153:403–406
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kreger D. R., KopeckÁ M. 1975; On the nature and formation of the fibrillar nets produced by protoplasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in liquid media: an electronmicroscopic, X-ray diffraction and chemical study. Journal of General Microbiology 92:207–220
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Manners D. J., Masson A. J., Patterson J. C. 1973a; The structure of β/1→3)-d-glucan from yeast cell walls. Biochemical Journal 135:19–30
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Manners D. J., Masson A. J., Patterson J. C., Bjorndal H., Lindberg B. 1973b; The structure of a β-(1→6)-d-glucan from yeast cell walls. Biochemical Journal 135:31–36
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Peat S., Whelan W. J., Edwards T. E. 1958; Polysaccharides of baker’s yeast. Part II. Yeast glucan. Journal of the Chemical Society3862–3868
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Poulter R., Jeffery K., Hubbard M. J., Sullivan P. A., Shepherd M. G. 1981; Parasexual genetic analysis of Candida albicans by spheroplast fusion. Journal of Bacteriology 146:833–840
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ram S., Beyer R., Shepherd M. G., Sullivan P. A. 1981; Isolation and analysis of neutral glucans from Eckloniaradiata and Cystophora scalaris. Carbohydrate Research 96:95–104
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Rees D. A. 1973; Polysaccharide conformation. In Carbohydrates (MTP International Review of Science: Organic Chemistry, series I 7 pp. 251–283 Aspinall G. O. Edited by London:: Butterworths.;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Reissig J. L., Strominger J. L., Leloir L. F. 1955; A modified colorimetric method for the estimation of A-acetylamino sugars. Journal of Biological Chemistry 217:959–966
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Scott J., Schekman R. 1980; Lyticase: endoglucanase and protease activities that act together in yeast cell lysis. Journal of Bacteriology 142:414–423
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Shepherd M. G., Sullivan P. A. 1976; The production and growth characteristics of yeast and mycelial forms of Candida albicansin continuous culture. Journal of General Microbiology 93:361–370
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Shepherd M. G., Tong C. C., Cole A. L. 1981; Substrate specificity and mode of action of the cellulases from the thermophilic fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus. Biochemical Journal 193:67–74
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Sietsma J. H., Wessels J. G. H. 1981; Solubility of (1→3)-β-d/(1→6)-β-d-glucan in fungal walls: importance of presumed linkage between glucan and chitin. Journal of General Microbiology 125:209–212
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Sullivan P. A., Chiew Y. Y., Molloy C., Templeton M. D., Shepherd M. G. 1983; An analysis of the metabolism and cell wall composition of Candida albicans during germ-tube formation. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry 29:1514–1525
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Yu R. T., Bishop C. T., Cooper F. P., Hasenclever H. F., Blank F. 1967; Structural studies of mannans from Candida albicans (Serotypes A and B), Candida parapsilosis, Candida stellatoidea and Candida tropicalis. Canadian Journal of Chemistry 45:2205–2211
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-5-1217
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-5-1217
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error