1887

Abstract

The plasmodium of reacts to external stimuli tactically. Positive and negative taxes correspond to relaxation and contraction, respectively. Variations of intracellular cAMP and cGMP concentrations in response to chemical stimuli were examined in relation to the regulation of contractility. Concentrations of the two cyclic nucleotides oscillated, with a gradual shift, for some time after stimulation. The period of oscillation was 4-5 min, with phases being the same in response to repellents, but different when attractants were tested. Therefore, changes in the accumulation of the nucleotides summed over 15 min were taken as a quantitative measure of the external stimuli. Attractants (glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, galactose, maltose) induced decreases both in cAMP and in cGMP concentration, the latter being larger than the former. Repellents (KCl, CaCl, MgCl, sucrose) induced decreases both in cAMP and in cGMP concentration, the former being larger than the latter. Variations of the intracellular cAMP concentration for repellents and those of cGMP concentration for attractants, took place at similar concentrations of stimulants as variations of contraction and relaxation, respectively. Microinjection of cAMP and cGMP into the plasmodial strands induced contraction, cGMP being about 10 times as effective as cAMP. The results indicate that both cAMP and cGMP regulate the ability to contract, not antagonistically, but cooperatively, in the sensory transduction of the plasmodium.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-3-549
1984-03-01
2021-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/130/3/mic-130-3-549.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-3-549&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Camp W. G. 1936; A method of cultivating myxomy- cete plasmodia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 63:205–210
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Chet I., Naveh A., Henis Y. 1977; Chemotaxis of Physarum polycephalum towards carbohydrates, amino acids and nucleotides. Journal of General Microbiology 102:145–148
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Diamond J. 1983; Lack of correlation between cyclic GMP elevation and relaxation of nonvascular smooth muscle by nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, hy- droxylamine and sodium azide. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 225:422–426
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Estensen R. D., Hill H. R., Quie P. G., Hogan N., Goldberg N. D. 1973; Cyclic GMP and cell movement. Nature; London: 245458–460
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Gerisch G. 1982; Chemotaxis in Dictyostelium . Annual Review of Physiology 44:535–552
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Gerisch G., Malchow D., Roos W., Wick U. 1979; Oscillations of cyclic nucleotide concentrations in relation to the excitability of Dictyostelium cells. Journal of Experimental Biology 81:33–47
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Goldberg N. D., Haddox M. K. 1977; Cyclic GMP metabolism and involvement in biological regulation. Annual Review of Biochemistry 46:823–896
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Grenbecki A., Cieslawska M. 1978; Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum as a synchronous contractile system. Cytobiologie 17:335–342
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hato M., Ueda T., Kurihara K., Kobatake Y. 1976; Phototaxis in true slime mould Physarum polycephalum . Cell Structure and Function 1:155–164
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hirose T., Ueda T., Kobatake Y. 1980a; Changes in ATP concentration triggered by chemo- reception in the plasmodia of the myxomycete Physarum polycephalum . Journal of General Microbiology 121:175–180
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hirose T., Ueda T., Kobatake Y. 1980b; An optical method for monitoring contractile activity in the plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum . Cell Structure and Function 5:281–284
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hirose T., Ueda T., Kobatake Y. 1982; Changes in intracellular pH accompanying chemoreception in the plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum . Journal of General Microbiology 128:2647–2651
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Honma M., Satoh T., Takezawa J., Ui M. 1977; An ultrasensitive method for the simultaneous determination of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in small-volume samples from blood and tissue. Biochemical Medicine 18:257–273
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kamiya N. 1981; Physical and chemical basis of cytoplasmic streaming. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 32:205–236
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kincaid R. L., Mansour T. E. 1978; Chemotaxis toward carbohydrates and aminoacids in Physarum polycephalum . Experimented Cell Research 116:377–385
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kincaid R. L., Mansour T. E. 1979; Cyclic 3ʹ,5ʹ- AMP phosphodiesterase in Physarum polycephalum. I. Chemotaxis toward inhibitors and cyclic nucleotides. Biochimica et biophysica acta 588:322–341
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Knowles D. J. C., Carlile M. J. 1978; The chemotactic response of plasmodia of the myxomy- cete Physarum polycephalum to sugars and related compounds. Journal of General Microbiology 108:17–25
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Korohoda W., Shraideh Z., Baranowski Z., Wohlfarth-Bottermann K. E. 1983; Energy metabolic regulation of oscillatory contraction activity in Physarum polycephalum . Cell and Tissue Research 231:675–691
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kupfermann I. 1980; Role of cyclic nucleotides in excitable cells. Annual Review of Physiology 42:629–641
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Rapp P. E., Berridge M. J. 1977; Oscillations in calcium-cyclic AMP control loops form the basis of pacemaker activity and other high frequency biological rhythms. Journal of Theoretical Biology 66:497–525
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Schiffmann E. 1982; Leukocyte chemotaxis. Annual Review of Physiology 44:553–568
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ueda T., Göotz Von Olenhusen K. 1978; Replacement of endoplasm with artificial media in plasmodial strands of Physarum polycephalum: effects on contractility and morphology. Experimental Cell Research 116:55–62
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ueda T., Terayama K., Kurihara K., Koratake Y. 1975; Threshold phenomena in chemoreception and taxis in slime mould Physarum polycephalum . Journal of General Physiology 65:223–234
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ueda T., Muratsugu M., Kurihara K., Koba-Take Y. 1976; Chemotaxis in Physarum polycephalum. effects of chemicals on isometric tension of the plasmodial strand in relation to chemotactic movement. Experimental Cell Research 100:337–344
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Yoshimoto Y., Kamiya N. 1982; Ca2+ oscillation in the homogenate of Physarum plasmodium. Protoplasma 110:63–65
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Yoshimoto Y., Sakai T., Kamiya N. 1981a; ATP oscillation in Physarum plasmodium. Protoplasma 109:159–168
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Yoshimoto Y., Matsumura F., Kamiya N. 1981b; Simultaneous oscillations of Ca2+ efflux and tension generation in the permealized plasmodial strand of Physarum . Cell Motility 1:433–444
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Yoshimoto Y., Nakamura S., Kamiya N. 1981c; Changes in intracellular Ca2+ and ATP concentrations and intracellular pH of Physarum plasmodium in relation to its contraction-relaxation cycle. In Proceedings of the Conference of the National Institute for Basic Biology on Mechanism of Cell Movement III 7 pp. 45–47 Kamiya N., Ishikawa H. Edited by Okazaki, Japan: National Institute for Basic Biology;
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-3-549
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-130-3-549
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error