1887

Abstract

Ten strains representing six serogroups of were examined by electron microscopy using freeze-etching, thin-sectioning and negative-staining techniques. In addition, selected strains were examined further as shadowed and freeze-dried preparations and by scanning electron microscopy. The cell envelope consisted of two membranes, evident in fractured specimens as four short ridges. The major fracture plane was through the inner membrane, and therefore the protoplasmic and extracellular fracture faces of this membrane were predominant. With the exception of one strain (Togus 1), the particle arrangement on these fracture faces was random. A peptidoglycan-like cell wall layer was revealed only in sections of partially plasmolysed cells. Membrane-bounded poly--hydroxybutyrate-like granules were evident in the cytoplasm and these frequently showed plastic deformation due to fracturing. Although appendages were present, the surfaces of organisms and of isolated cell membranes showed no regular arrays of particles.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-128-7-1547
1982-07-01
2021-08-03
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/128/7/mic-128-7-1547.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-128-7-1547&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Arancia G., Rosati V., Trovalus Cicateri P. 1980; Effects of glutaraldehyde and glycerol on freeze-fractured Escherichia coli . Journal of Microscopy 118:161–176
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Blackmon J. A., Chandler F. W., Cherry W. B., England A. C., Feeley J. C., Hicklin M. D., Mckinney R. M., Wilkinson H. W. 1981; Legionellosis. American Journal of Pathology 103:427–465
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Branton D., Bullivant S., Gilula N. B., Karnovsky M. J., Moor H., Mühlethaler K., Northcote D. H., Packer L., Satir B., Satir P., Speth V., Staehlin L. A., Steere R. L., Weinstein R. S. 1975; Freeze-etching nomenclature. Science 190:54–56
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brenner D. J., Steigerwalt A. G., Mcdade J. E. 1979; Classification of the Legionnaires’ disease bacterium:Legionella pneumophila, genus novum, species nova, of the family Legionellaceae,familia nova. Annals of Internal Medicine 90:656–658
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chandler F. W., Cole R. M., Hicklin M. D., Blackmon J. A., Callaway C. S. 1979; Ultrastructure of the Legionnaires’ disease bacterium. A study using transmission electron microscopy. Annals of Internal Medicine 90:642–647
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chandler F. W., Roth I. L., Callaway C. S., Bump J. L., Thomason B. M., Weaver R. E. 1980; Flagella on Legionnaires’ disease bacteria. Ultrastructural observations. Annals of Internal Medicine 93:711–714
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cherry W. B., Pitman B., Harris P. P., Hebert G. A., Thomason B. M., Thacker L., Weaver R. E. 1978; Detection of Legionnaires’ disease bacteria by direct immunofluorescent staining. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 8:329–338
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Costerton J. W. 1979; The role of electron microscopy in the elucidation of bacterial structure and function. Annual Review of Microbiology 33:459–479
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Costerton J. W., Ingram J. M., Cheng K-J. 1974; Structure and function of the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteriological Reviews 38:86–110
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Davey M. R., Mathias R. J. 1979; Closepacking of plasma membrane particles during wall regeneration by isolated higher plant protoplasts-fact or artefact. Protoplasma 100:85–99
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dunlop W. F., Robards A. W. 1973; Ultrastructural study of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate granules from Bacillus cereus . Journal of Bacteriology 141:1271–1280
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Every D., Skerman T. M. 1980; Ultrastructure of the Bacteroides nodosus cell envelope layers and surface. Journal of Bacteriology 141:845–857
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Feeley J. C., Gorman G. W., Gibson R. J. 1978; Primary isolation media and methods. In ‘Legionnaires’’ the Disease, the Bacterium and the Methodology pp. 107–117 Jones G. L., Hebert G. A. Edited by Atlanta, Georgia: Center for Disease Control;
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Flesher A. R., Susumu I., Mansheim B. J., Kaspar D. L. 1979; The cell envelope of the Legionnaires’ disease bacterium. Annals of Internal Medicine 90:628–630
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fraser D. W., Tsai T. R., Orenstein W., Parkin W. E., Beecham H. J., Sharrar R. G., Harris J., Mallison G. F., Martin S. M., Mcdade J. E., Shepard C. C., Brackman P. S. The Field Investigation Team 1977; Legionnaires’ disease, description of an epidemic of pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine 2971189–1197
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Glauert A. M., Thornley M. J., Thorne K. J. I., Sleytr U. B. 1976; The surface structure of bacteria. In Microbial Ultrastructure, the Use oJ the Electron Microscope pp. 31–47 Fuller R., Lovelock D. W. Edited by London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Greaves P. W., Sharp G. B., Macrae A. D. 1979; Isolation of Legionella pneumophila . Lancet 1:551–552
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Keel J. A., Finnerty W. R., Feeley J. C. 1979; Fine structure of the Legionnaires’ disease bacterium:in vitro and in vivo studies of four isolates. Annals of Internal Medicine 90:652–655
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lounatmaa K. 1979; Ultrastructure of the outer membrane of Salmonella typhimurium bacteriocin-resistant mutants deficient in the 33K protein. Journal of Bacteriology 139:646–651
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Martinez-Palomo A., Pinto Da Silva P., Chavez R. 1976; Membrane structure of Entamoeba histolytica: fine structure of freeze-fractured membranes. Journal of Ultrastructural Research 54:148–158
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mcdade J. E., Shepard C. C., Fraser D. W., Tsai T. R., Redus M. A., Dowdle W. R. The Laboratoriny Inestigation Team 1977; Legionnaires’ disease: isolation of a bacterium and demonstration of its role in other respiratory disease. New England Journal of Medicine 2971197–1203
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Mcintyre J. A., Gilula N. B., Karnovsky M. J. 1974; Cryoprotectant induced redistribution of intramembrane particles in mouse lymphocytes. Journal of Cell Biology 60:192–203
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Moor H., Mühlethaler K. 1963; Fine structure of frozen etched yeast cells. Journal of Cell Biology 17:609–629
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Moss C. W., Weaver R. E., Dees S. B., Cherry W. B. 1977; Cellular fatty acid composition of isolates from Legionnaires’ disease. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 6:140–143
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rodgers F. G. 1979; Ultrastructure of Legionella pneumophila . Journal of Clinical Pathology 32:1195–1202
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rodgers F. G. 1982; Identification of Legionella pneumophila antigens and antibodies by immunoferritin electron microscopy. Journal of Medical Microbiology 15:181–187
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Rodgers F. G., Macrae A. D. 1979; Immunoferritin electron microscopy in legionellosis. Lancet 1:786
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Rodgers F. G., Macrae A. D., Lewis M. J. 1978; Electron microscopy of the organism of Legionnaires’ disease. Nature; London: 272825–826
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Rodgers F. G., Greaves P. W., Macrae A. D. 1979; Flagella and fimbriae on legionella organisms. Lancet 2:753–754
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Rodgers F. G., Greaves P. W., Macrae A. D., Lewis M. J. 1980; Electron microscopic evidence of flagella and pili on Legionella pneumophila . Journal of Clinical Pathology 33:1184–1188
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Sleytr U. B., Robards A. W. 1977; Plastic deformation during freeze-cleavage: a review. Journal of Microscopy 110:1–25
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sleytr U. B., Thornley M. J., Glauert A. M. 1974; Location of the fracture faces within the cell envelope of Acinetobacter species strain MJT/F5/5. Journal of Bacteriology 118:693–707
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Thomason B. M., Chandler F. W., Hollis D. G. 1979; Flagella on Legionnaires’ disease bacteria: an interim report. Annals of Internal Medicine 91:224–226
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Wong M. C., Ewing E. P., Callaway F. W., Peacock W. L. 1980; Intracellular multiplication of Legionella pneumophila in cultured human embryonic lung fibroblasts. Infection and Immunity 28:1014–1018
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-128-7-1547
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-128-7-1547
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error