1887

Abstract

causes common infections of the eyes and genital tract in man. The mechanism by which this obligate intracellular bacterium is taken into epithelial cells is unclear. The results described here support the concept that chlamydial infection of HeLa cells is under bidirectional cyclic nucleotide control, with guanosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) acting as a stimulator, and adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) as an inhibitor. Treatment of the HeLa cells with the divalent cation ionophore A23187, with carbamoylcholine, or with prostaglandins known to increase the concentration of endogenous cGMP, also increased host cell susceptibility to chlamydial infection. Cyclic GMP was only effective if added at or before chlamydial inoculation, suggesting that its main effect was on chlamydial uptake. The stimulatory effect of cGMP, but not antagonism by cAMP, was abolished if the cells were first treated with any of four different inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis, suggesting a critical role for endogenous prostaglandin synthesis. Centrifugation of chlamydiae on to host cells was followed by a rapid increase in the mobility of Ca across the cell membrane. The interrelationships of these observations and the possibility that chlamydiae and other intracellular pathogens might evoke alterations in host cell prostaglandin and cyclic nucleotide concentrations to aid their own uptake are discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-128-3-639
1982-03-01
2021-07-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/128/3/mic-128-3-639.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-128-3-639&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Becker Y., Asher Y. 1972; Synthesis of trachoma agent proteins in emetine-treated cells. Journal of Bacteriology 109:966–970
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Byrne G. I., Moulder J. W. 1978; Parasite-specified phagocytosis of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis by L and HeLa cells. Infection and Immunity 19:598–606
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chang G. T., Moulder J. W. 1978; Loss of inorganic ions from host cells infected with Chlamydia psittaci. Infection and Immunity 19:827–832
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cox J. P., Karnovsky M. L. 1973; The depression of phagocytosis and exogenous cyclic nucleotides, prostaglandins and theophylline. Journal of Cell Biology 59:480–490
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Gemsa D., Seitz M., Kramer W., Grimm W., Till G., Resch K. 1979; Ionophore A23187 raises cyclic AMP levels in macrophages by stimulating prostaglandin E formation. Experimental Cell Research 118:55–62
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Goldberg N. D., Haddox M. K. 1977; Cyclic GMP metabolism and involvement in biological regulation. Annual Review of Biochemistry 46:823–896
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Goldberg N. D., Haddox M. K., Dunham I., Lopez C., Hadden J. W. 1974; The Ying Yang hypothesis of biological control: opposing influences of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP in the regulation of cell proliferation and other biological processes. In Control of Proliferation in Animal Cells pp. 609–625 Clarkson B., Baserga R. Edited by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory:
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Goldberg N. D., Graff G., Haddox M. K., Stephenson J. H., Glass D. B., Moser M. E. 1978; Redox modulation of splenic soluble guanylate cyclase activity: activation by hydrophilic oxidants represented by ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids, fatty acid hydroperoxides, and prostaglandin endoperoxides. Advances in Cyclic Nucleotide Research 9:101–158
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Griffin F. M.Jr Griffin J. A., Leider J., Silverstein S. C. 1975; Studies on the mechanism of phagocytosis. I. Requirements for circumferential attachment of particle-bound ligands to specific receptors on the macrophage plasma membrane. Journal of Experimental Medicine 142:1263–1282
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kankel E., Hilz H. 1972; Permeation of dibutyryl cAMP into HeLa cells and its conversion to monobutyryl cAMP. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 46:1011–1018
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kuo C. C., Grayston J. T. 1976; Interaction of Chlamydia trachomatis organisms and HeLa 229 cells. Infection and Immunity 13:1103–1109
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Malmsten C., Granstrom E., Samuelsson B. 1976; Cyclic AMP inhibits synthesis of prostaglandin endoperoxide (PGG2) in human platelets. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 68:569–576
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Minkes M., Stanford N., Chi M.M-Y., Roth G. J., Raz A., Needleman P., Majerus P. W. 1977; Cyclic adenosine 3´,5´-monophosphate inhibits the availability of arachidonate to prostaglandin synthetase in human platelet suspensions. Journal of Clinical Investigation 59:449–454
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Moulder J. W. 1974; Intracellular parasitism: life in an extreme environment. Journal of Infectious Diseases 130:300–306
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Patterson S., Oxford J. S., Dourmashkin R. R. 1979; Studies on the mechanism of influenza virus entry into cells. Journal of General Virology 43:223–229
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Reed R. W., Lardy H. A. 1972; A23187: a divalent cation ionophore. Journal of Biological Chemistry 247:6970–6977
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Russell W. C., Newman C., Williamson D. H. 1975; A simple cytochemical technique for demonstration of DNA in cells infected with mycoplasma and viruses. Nature; London: 253461–462
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Salari S. H., Ward M. E. 1979; Early detection of Chlamydia trachomatis using fluorescent, DNA binding dyes. Journal of Clinical Pathology 32:1155–1162
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Salari S. H., Ward M. E. 1981; Polypeptide composition of Chlamydia trachomatis. Journal of General Microbiology 123:197–207
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Salzman E. W. 1972; Cyclic AMP and platelet function. New England Journal of Medicine 286:357–362
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Samuelsson B., Goldyne M., Granström E., Hamberg M., Hammarstrom S., Malmsten C. 1978; Prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Annual Review of Biochemistry 47:997–1029
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Stirling P., Richmond S. 1977; The developmental cycle of Chlamydia trachomatis in McCoy cells treated with cytochalasin. Journal of General Microbiology 100:31–42
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ward M. E., Salari S. H. 1980; Modulation of Chlamydia trachomatis infection by cyclic nucleotides and prostaglandins. FEMS Microbiology Letters 7:141–143
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Weltzien H. U. 1979; Cytolytic and membrane perturbing properties of lysophosphatidylcholine. Biochimica et biophysica acta 559:259–287
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Zurier R. B., Weissmann G., Hoffstein S., Kammerman S., Tai H. H. 1974; Mechanisms of lysosomal enzyme release from human polymorphs. II. Effects of cAMP, cGMP, autonomic antagonists and agents which affect microtubule function. Journal of Clinical Investigation 53:297–309
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-128-3-639
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-128-3-639
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error