SUMMARY: Crude extracts of grown on glucose, xylose or ethanol gave single peaks of classical transketolase activity following chromatography on columns of hydroxylapatite; the enzyme was heat-stable and showed no appreciable activity with formaldehyde as acceptor in place of ribose 5-phosphate. Extracts of methanol-grown cells showed two peaks of transketolase activity following chromatography on both hydroxylapatite and DEAE-cellulose. One peak was identified with that found for the cells grown on substrates other than methanol; the other peak showed dihydroxyacetone synthase activity in addition to transketolase activity. Both activities in the latter peak were very unstable and have been ascribed to one enzyme on the basis of identical rates of denaturation at all temperatures tested between 0 and 40 °C. It is suggested that this enzyme is a special transketolase synthesized only during methylotrophic growth of the yeast and, in contrast to classical transketolase, is capable of using equally well either formaldehyde or ribose 5-phosphate as glycolaldehyde acceptor. A method based on heat treatment has been suggested for the simultaneous assay of both transketolases present in crude extracts of a methylotrophically grown yeast.


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