1887

Abstract

Actinophage active against both neutrophilic and acidophilic streptomycetes were isolated from a variety of soils by a specific enrichment method. No phage were detected in soils with a pH below 6·0, despite the presence of acidophilic streptomycetes in these soils. However, some phage isolated from neutral soils were able to lyse acidophilic streptomycetes at pH 5·5. Selected actinophage were shown to be stable between pH 5·5 and 9·0 in sterile soils and broth, but were rapidly inactivated at lower or higher pH values. Survival of these phage was good in neutral soils, but negligible in acidic soils. This suggested that free phage were unable to remain infective in acidic soils, thus at least partially accounting for the failure to isolate them. Acidity was shown to have variable effects on several stages of phage replication including adsorption, penetration and the length of the latent period. The latter effect was directly related to the metabolic activity of the host.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-122-2-271
1981-02-01
2021-05-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/122/2/mic-122-2-271.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-122-2-271&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adams M. 1959 Bacteriophages. New York: Wiley Interscience.;
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Best R.J., Samuel G. 1936; The reaction of the viruses of tomato spotted wilt and tobacco mosaic to the pH value of media containing them. Annals of Applied Biology 23:509–537
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bradley D. E. 1967; Ultrastructure of bacteriophages and bacteriocins. Bacteriological Reviews 31:230–314
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Calberg-Bacq C.M. 1963 Caracterisation d’une particule virale: l’actinophage ɸ17. Thése de Doctorat en Sciences, Université de Liége, Belgium.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Davies F.L., Williams S.T. 1970; Studies on the ecology of actinomycetes in soil. I. The occurrence and distribution of actinomycetes in a pine forest soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2:227–238
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dowding J.E. 1972 Studies on bacteriophage of Streptomyces coelicolor. Ph.D. thesis: University of East Anglia, Norwich.;
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Finkelstein H., Marx W., Beard D., Beard J.W. 1940; pH stability of equine encephalomyelitis virus (Eastern strain) under various conditions. Journal of Infectious Diseases 66:117–126
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Flowers T.H., Williams S.T. 1977; The influence of pH on the growth rate and viability of neutrophilic and acidophilic streptomycetes. Microbios 18:223–228
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Fraser D., Fleischmann C. 1974; Interaction of mycoplasma with viruses. I. Primary adsorption of virus is ionic in mechanism. Journal of Virology 13:1067–1074
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Jones L.A., Bradley S.G. 1965; The life-cycle of an actinophage for Streptomyces venezuelae . Journal of General Microbiology 40:191–198
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Khan M.R., Williams S.T. 1975; Studies on the ecology of actinomycetes in soil. VIII. Distribution and characteristics of acidophilic actinomycetes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 7:345–348
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kwiatkowski B., Taylor A. 1970; Two-step attachment of Vi phage I to the bacterial surface. Acta microbiologica polonica 2:13–20
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Mayfield C.I., Williams S.T., Ruddick S.M., Hatfield H.L. 1972; Studies on the ecology of actinomycetes in soil. IV. Observations on the form and growth of streptomycetes in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 4:79–91
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Mikhailova G.R. 1964; Cytological study of the development of Actinomyces aureofaciens infected with actinophage on agarized medium. Antibiotiki 3:217
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Miller G.M. 1944; Influence of pH and of certain other conditions on the stability of the infectivity and red cell agglutinating activity of influenza virus. Journal of Experimental Medicine 80:507–520
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Patel J.J. 1969; Phages of lysogenic Thermoactinomyces vulgaris . Archiv für Mikrobiologie 69:294–300
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Pridham T. G., Lyons A. J. 1961; Streptomyces albus (Rossie-Doria) Waksman et Henrici: taxonomic study of strains labelled Streptomyces albus . Journal of Bacteriology 81:431–441
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Puck T.T., Tolmach L.J. 1954; The mechanism of virus attachment to host cells. IV. Physicochemical studies on virus and cell surface groups. Archives of Biochemistry 51:229–245
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Putnam F.W., Kozloff L.M., Neil J.C. 1949; Biochemical studies of virus reproduction. I. Purification and properties of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T6. Journal of Biological Chemistry 179:303–323
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Reed J.F., Cummins R.W. 1945; Soil reaction-glass electrode and colorimetric methods for determining pH values of soils. Soil Science 59:97–104
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Rice M.M., Mccoy E., Knight S.G. 1954; Bacteriophagy of Streptomyces griseus as revealed by phase microscope. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 86:344–345
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Riverin S., Beaudoin J., Vezina C. 1970; Characterization of a nocardiophage for Nocardia restrictus . Journal of General Virology 6:395–407
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Sakaki Y., Oshima T. 1975; Isolation and characterization of a bacteriophage infectious to an extreme thermophile, Thermus thermophilus HB8. Journal of Virology 15:1449–1453
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Saunders G.F., Campbell L.L. 1966; Characterization of a thermophilic bacteriophage for Bacillus stearothermophilus . Journal of Bacteriology 91:340–348
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Shirling E.B., Gottlieb D. 1966; Methods for the characterization of Streptomyces species. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 16:313–340
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Sykes I.K., Williams S.T. 1978; Interactions of actinophage and clays. Journal of General Microbiology 108:97–102
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Taber W.A. 1959; Identification of an alkaline-dependent Streptomyces as Streptomyces caeruleus Baldacci and characterization of the species under controlled conditions. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 5:335–344
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Takeda K., Uetake H. 1973; In vitro interaction between phage and receptor lipopolysaccharide: a novel glycosidase associated with Salmonella phage E151. Virology 52:148–159
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Thompson T.L., Shafia F. 1962; Energy requirement for adsorption of bacteriophage ɸ U-4´. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 8:467–470
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Tolmach L.J., Puck T.T. 1952; Mechanisms of virus attachment to host cells. Journal of the American Chemical Society 74:551–553
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Torsvik T., Dundas I.D. 1974; Bacteriophage of Halobacterium salinarium . Nature; London: 248680–681
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Watson E.T., Williams S.T. 1974; Studies on the ecology of actinomycetes in soil. VII. Actinomycetes in a coastal sand belt. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 6:43–52
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Wilde P. 1966; Zur Vermehrung von Actinophagen. Archiv für Mikrobiologie 56:120–132
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Williams S.T., Flowers T.H. 1978; The influence of pH on starch hydrolysis by neutrophilic and acidophilic streptomycetes. Microbios 20:99–106
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Williams S.T., Mayfield C.I. 1971; Studies on the ecology of actinomycetes in soil. III. The behaviour of neutrophilicstreptomycetes in acid soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 3:197–208
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Williams S.T., Davies F.L., Mayfield C., Khan M.R. 1971; Studies on the ecology of actinomycetes in soil. II. The pH requirements of streptomycetes from two acid soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 3:187–195
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Zachary A. 1974; Isolation of bacteriophages to the marine bacterium Beneckeanatriegens from coastal salt marshes. Applied Microbiology 27:980–982
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-122-2-271
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-122-2-271
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error