1887

Abstract

Synchronized akinete differentiation occurred following the transition from exponential to non-exponential (linear) growth, the major trigger being energy limitation. Young akinetes first accumulated cyanophycin, then developed a multilayered extracellular envelope and a thickened wall. The dry weight, chlorophyll , glycogen and carbon contents of mature akinetes were greater than those of vegetative cells, while their contents of DNA, RNA, protein, phycocyanin and nitrogen were similar to those of vegetative cells. Akinetes were resistant to desiccation and low temperatures, but not to temperatures above the maximum for vegetative cell growth.

In N-grown cultures heterocyst differentiation ceased at the end of exponential growth, while cell division continued, and akinetes first appeared in a regular pattern at a fixed distance (9 cells) from the nearest heterocyst. Exogenous NH inhibited the differentiation of heterocysts and, in their absence, akinetes developed in irregular positions. The regular spatial pattern imposed on akinete differentiation by heterocysts was, like the heterocyst spatial pattern itself, independent of N fixation. Similar changes in both patterns induced by 7-azatryptophan suggested that they share a common mechanism of control.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-115-2-273
1979-12-01
2021-10-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/115/2/mic-115-2-273.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-115-2-273&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Altenbern R. A. 1968; Chromosome mapping in Staphylococcus aureus . Journal of Bacteriology 95:1642–1646
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bennett A., Bogorad L. 1973; Complementary chromatic adaptation in a filamentous blue-green alga. Journal of Cell Biology 58:419–435
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bornet E., Flahaut C. 1888; Révision des Nostocacées Hétérocystées. Annales des sciences naturelles (Botanique) 7:177–262
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bothe H., Eisbrenner G. 1977; Effect of 7-azatryptophan on nitrogen fixation and heterocyst formation in the blue-green alga Anabaena cylindrica . Biochimie und Physiologie der Pflanzen 171:323–332
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bradley S., Carr N. G. 1976; Heterocyst and nitrogenase development in Anabaena cylindrica . Journal of General Microbiology 96:175–184
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Canabaeus L. 1929; Über die Heterocysten und Gasvakuolen der Blaualgen und ihre Beziehung zueinander. Pflanzenforschung 13:1–48
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Coulter D. B., Aronson J. M. 1977; Glycogen structure and utilisation in Allomyces macrogynus . Experimental Mycology 1:183–193
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Demeter O. 1956; Über Modifikationen bei Cyanophyceen. Archiv für Mikrobiologie 24:105–133
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Fay P. 1969a; Cell differentiation and pigment composition in Anabaena cylindrica . Archiv für Mikrobiologie 67:62–70
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fay P. 1969b; Metabolic activities of isolated spores of Anabaena cylindrica . Journal of Experimental Botany 20:100–109
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fischer R. W., Wolk C. P. 1976; Substance stimulating the differentiation of spores of the blue-green alga Cylindrospermum licheniforme . Nature; London: 259394–395
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fogg G. E. 1951; Growth and heterocyst produc-tion in Anabaena cylindrica Lemm. III. The cytology of heterocysts. Annals of Botany 15:23–35
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fogg G. E., Stewart W. D. P., Fay P., Walsby A. E. 1973 The Blue-Green Algae London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fritsch F. E. 1904; Studies on Cyanophyceae. III. Some points in the reproduction of Anabaena . New Phytologist 3:216–228
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fritsch F. E. 1951; The heterocyst: a botanical enigma. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 162:194–211
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Herdman M., Janvier M., Rippka R., Stanier R. Y. 1979; Genome size of cyanobacteria. Journal of General Microbiology 111:73–85
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Jensen T. E., Clark R. C. 1969; Cell wall and coat of the developing akinete of a Cylindro-spermum species. Journal of Bacteriology 97:1494–1495
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Leach C. K., Old J. M., Carr N. G. 1971; Aspects of macromolecular synthesis in the blue- green alga Anabaena variabilis . Journal of General Microbiology 68:xiv
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lloyd J. B., Whelan W. J. 1969; An improved method for enzymatic determination of glucose in the presence of maltose. Analytical Biochemistry 30:467–469
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Mann N., Carr N. G. 1974; Control of macro-molecular composition and cell division in the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans . Journal of General Microbiology 83:399–405
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Marker A. F. H. 1972; The use of acetone and methanol in the estimation of chlorophyll in the presence of phaeophytin. Freshwater Biology 2:361–385
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Marshall J. J., Whelan W. J. 1970; Incomplete conversion of glycogen and starch by crystalline amyloglucosidase and its importance in the determination of amylaceous polymers. FEBS Letters 9:85–88
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Miller M. M., Lang N. J. 1968; The fine structure of akinete formation and germination in Cylindrospermum . Archiv für Mikrobiologie 60:303–313
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Mitchison G. J., Wilcox M. 1973; Alteration in heterocyst pattern in Anabaena produced by 7-azatryptophan. Nature New Biology 246:229–233
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Nichols J. M., Carr N. G. 1978; Akinetes of cyanobacteria. In Spores VII pp. 335–343 Chambliss G., Vary J. C. Edited by Washington: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rippka R., Deruelles J., Waterbury J. B., Herdman M., Stanier R. Y. 1979; Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria. Journal of General Microbiology 111:1–61
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Rother J. A., Fay P. 1977; Sporulation and the development of planktonic blue-green algae in two Salopian meres. Proceedings of the Royal Society B196:317–332
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Sadoff H. L., Page W. J., Reusch R. N. 1975; The cyst of Azotobacter vinelandii: comparative view of morphogenesis. In Spores VI pp. 52–60 Gerhardt P., Costilow R. N., Sadoff H. L. Edited by Washington: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Simon R. D. 1973; The effect of chloramphenicol on the production of cyanophycin granule polypeptide in the blue-green alga Anabaena cylindrica . Archiv für Mikrobiologie 92:115–122
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Simon R. D. 1977a; Sporulation in the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica. The course of spore formation. Archives of Microbiology 111:283–288
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Simon R. D. 1977b; Macromolecular composition of spores from the cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica . Journal of Bacteriology 129:1154–1155
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Singh H. N., Srivastava B. S. 1968; Studies on morphogenesis in a blue-green alga. I. Effect of organic nitrogen sources on developmental morphology of Anabaena doliolum . Canadian Journal of Microbiology 14:1341–1346
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Stewart W. D. P., Fitzgerald G. P., Burris R. H. 1967; In situ studies on N2 fixation using the acetylene reduction technique. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 58:2071–2078
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Tyagi V. V. S. 1974; Some observations on the pattern of sporulation in a blue-green alga, Anabaena doliolum . Annals of Botany 38:1107–1111
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Ueda K., Sawada M. 1972; DNA-content of akinete cells in Cylindrospermum . Cytologia 37:519–523
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Wildon D. C., Mercer F. V. 1963; The ultra-structure of the heterocyst and akinete of the blue-green algae. Archiv für Mikrobiologie 47:19–31
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Wolk C. P. 1965; Control of sporulation in a blue-green alga. Developmental Biology 12:15–35
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Wolk C. P. 1966; Evidence of a role of heterocysts in the sporulation of a blue-green alga. American Journal of Botany 53:260–262
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Yamamoto Y. 1975; Effect of desiccation on the germination of akinetes of Anabaena cylindrica . Plant and Cell Physiology 16:749–752
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-115-2-273
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-115-2-273
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error