1887

Abstract

Summary: The variation in penicillin titre within populations of cultures of derived from untreated conidia and from conidia treated with ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), near-ultraviolet light in the presence of 8-methoxypsoralen (8MOP) or -methyl-” -nitro--nitrosoguanidine (NTG), each at several dose levels, was determined. Both mutagen-treated and untreated populations showed a continuous distribution of penicillin titres. The population mean titre of the mutagenized populations was decreased and the range of titres was increased relative to those of the control populations. No differences between sister cultures could be detected in three untreated populations, but nine out of ten populations derived from mutagenized conidia showed significant variation for penicillin titre. In general the magnitude of this induced variation increased with increasing dosage of the mutagen. Comparisons at fixed survival levels indicate that 8MOP mutagenesis is less effective for the induction of variation in penicillin titre than EMS or NTG mutagenesis. A statistical procedure was adopted to classify the survivors as unchanged cultures (“0”), itre-increasing mutants (“+”) or titre-decreasing mutants (“-”). The frequency of both “+” and “-” mutants increased following mutagenesis, with NTG being the most active of the three mutagens. Over all treatments, these two mutant classes were recovered with equal frequency. The frequency of “+” mutants was largely independent of mutagen dose, within the ranges used, and moderate treatments (around 10% survival) gave as high or higher frequencies than more extreme doses. All three mutagens, and in particular NTG, produced morphological mutants. These contained an increased frequency of titre-decreasing mutants, but increases in titre appeared to be independent of changes in colony morphology. Estimates based on the observed frequencies of penicillin titre mutants suggest that several hundred genes are potentially capable of affecting this continuous variable.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-110-1-1
1979-01-01
2021-05-10
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/110/1/mic-110-1-1.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-110-1-1&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Alderson T., Clark A. M. 1966; Interlocus specificity for chemical mutagens in Aspergillus nidulans. Nature, London 210:593–595
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alderson T., Hartley M. J. 1969; Specificity for spontaneous and induced forward mutation at several gene loci in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutation Research 8:255–264
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Alderson T., Scazzocchio C. 1967; A system for the study of interlocus specificity for both forward and reverse mutation in at least eight gene loci in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutation Research 4:567–577
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Alderson T., Scott B. R. 1970; The photosensitizing effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on the inactivation and mutation of Aspergillus conidia by near ultraviolet light.. Mutation Research 9:569–578
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Alikhanian S. I. 1962; Induced mutagenesis in the selection of microorganisms.. Advances in Applied Microbiology 4:1–50
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Alikhanian S. I. 1970; Applied aspects of microbial genetics.. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 53:91–148
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Backus M. P., Stauffer J. F. 1955; The production and selection of a family of strains in Penicillium chrysogenum. Mycologia 47:429–463
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Balassa G. 1969; Biochemical genetics of bacterial sporulation. I. Unidirectional pleiotropic interactions among genes controlling sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Molecular and General Genetics 104:73–103
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ball C. 1973; Improvement of penicillin productivity in Penicillium chrysogenum by recombination. In Genetics of Industrial Microorganisms pp. 227–237 Edited by Vaněk Z., Hoštálek Z., Cudlín J. Prague: Academia;
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Barratt R. W., Johnson G. B., Ogata W. N. 1965; Wild type and mutant stocks of Aspergillus nidulans. Genetics 52:233–246
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Borojević K. 1966; Studies on radiation induced mutations in quantitative characters of wheat (Triticum vulgare). In Mutations in Plant Breeding pp. 15–38 Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency;
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bridges B. A. 1976; Mutation induction. In Second International Symposium on the Genetics of Industrial Microorganisms pp. 7–28 Edited by Macdonald K. D. London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Brock R. D. 1965; Induced mutations affecting quantitative characters. In The Use of Induced Mutations in Plant Breeding pp. 451–464 Supplement to Radiation Botany 5 Oxford: Pergamon Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Brown W. F., Elander R. P. 1966; Some biometric considerations in an applied antibiotic AD-464 strain development program.. Developments in Industrial Microbiology 8:114–123
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Caten C. E., Jinks J. L. 1976; Quantitative genetics. In Second International Symposium on the Genetics of Industrial Microorganisms pp. 93–111 Edited by Macdonald K. D. London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Clowes R. C., Hayes W. 1968 Experiments in Microbial Genetics p. 191 Oxford and Edinburgh: Blackwell Scientific Publications;
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Clutterbuck A. J., Sinha U. K. 1966; N-Methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) as a mutagen for Aspergillus nidulans. Aspergillus Newsletter 7:12–13
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Demain A. L. 1973; Mutation and the production of secondary metabolites.. Advances in Applied Microbiology 16:177–202
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Ditchburn P., Holt G., Macdonald K. D. 1976; The genetic location of mutations increasing penicillin yield in Aspergillus nidulans. In Second International Symposium on the Genetics of Industrial Microorganisms pp. 213–227 Edited by Macdonald K. D. London: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Dulaney E. L. 1953; Observations on Streptomyces griseus VI. Further studies on strain selection for improved streptomycin production.. Mycologia 45:480–487
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Edwards G. F. St. L., Holt G., Macdonald K. D. 1974; Mutants of Aspergillus nidulans impaired in penicillin biosynthesis.. Journal of General Microbiology 84:420–422
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Elander R. P., Espenshade M. A. 1976; The role of microbial genetics in industrial microbiology. In Industrial Microbiology pp. 192–256 Edited by Miller B. M., Litsky W. New York: McGraw-Hill;
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Elander R. P., Stauffer J. F., Backus M. P. 1961; Antibiotic production by various species and varieties of Emericellopsis and Cephalosporium. Antimicrobial Agents Annual 1960:91–102
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Esser K., Kuenen R. 1967 Genetics of Fungi. New York: Springer Verlag;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gaul H. 1965; The concept of macro- and micro-mutations and results on induced micro-mutations in barley. In The Use of Induced Mutations in Plant Breeding pp. 407–428 Supplement to Radiation Botany 5 Oxford: Pergamon Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gregory W. C. 1955; X-ray breeding of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.).. Agronomy Journal 47:396–399
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gregory W. C. 1966; Mutation breeding. In Plant Breeding pp. 189–218 Edited by Frey K. J. Ames: Iowa State University Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Holt G., Macdonald K. D. 1968a; Penicillin production and its mode of inheritance in Aspergillus nidulans. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 34:409–416
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Holt G., Macdonald K. D. 1968b; Isolation of strains with increased penicillin yield after hybridisation in Aspergillus nidulans. Nature, London 219:636–637
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lees K. A., Tootill J. P. R. 1955; Microbiological assay on large plates. I. General considerations with particular reference to routine assay.. Analyst 80:95–110
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lilly L. J. 1965; An investigation of the suitability of suppressors of methl in Aspergillus nidulans for the study of induced and spontaneous mutations.. Mutation Research 2:192–195
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Macdonald K. D. 1968; The persistence of parental genome segregation in Penicillium chrysogenum after nitrogen mustard treatment.. Mutation Research 5:302–305
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Macdonald K. D., Hutchinson J. M., Gillett W. A. 1963; Isolation of auxotrophs of Penicillium chrysogenum and their penicillin yields.. Journal of General Microbiology 33:365–374
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Macdonald K. D., Hutchinson J. M., Gillett W. A. 1964; Properties of heterozygous diploids between strains of Penicillium chrysogenum selected for high penicillin yield.. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 30:209–224
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Malling H. V., De Serres H. J. 1968; Identification of genetic alteration induced by ethyl methane sulphonate in Neurospora crassa. Mutation Research 6:181–193
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Malling H. V., De Serres F. J. 1970; Genetic effects of N-methyl-N-′nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in Neurospora crassa. Molecular and General Genetics 106:195–207
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Martinelli S. D., Clutterbuck A. J. 1971; A quantitative survey of conidiation mutants in Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of General Microbiology 69:261–268
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Merrick M. J. 1975a; Hybridization and selection for increased penicillin titre in wild-type isolates of Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of General Microbiology 91:278–286
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Merrick M. J. 1975b; The inheritance of penicillin titre in crosses between lines of Aspergillus nidulans selected for increased productivity.. Journal of General Microbiology 91:287–294
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Merrick M. J., Caten C. E. 1975a; The design of fermentation and biological assay procedures for assessment of penicillin production in populations of Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 38:121–131
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Merrick M. J., Caten C. E. 1975b; The inheritance of penicillin titre in wild-type isolates of Aspergillus nidulans. Journal of General Microbiology 86:283–293
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Roberts C. 1969; Silica gel stock cultures of Aspergillus nidulans. Aspergillus Newsletter 10:29
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Sakai K., Suzuki A. 1964; Induced mutation and pleiotropy of genes responsible for quantitative characters in rice.. Radiation Botany 4:141–151
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Scott B. R., Alderson T. 1971; The random (non-specific) forward mutational response of gene loci in Aspergillus conidia after photosensitisation to near ultraviolet light (365 nm) by 8-methoxypsoralen.. Mutation Research 12:29–34
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Scott B. R., Pathak M. A., Mohn G. R. 1976; Molecular and genetic basis of furocoumarin reactions.. Mutation Research 39:29–34
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Sermonti G. 1969 Genetics of Antibiotic-producing Microorganisms. London: Wiley Interscience;
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Stapleton G. E., Hollaender A., Martin F. L. 1952; Mechanism of lethal and mutagenic action of ionizing radiation on Aspergillus terreus. I. Relationship of relative biological efficiency to ion density.. Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology 39:suppl. 187–100
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-110-1-1
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-110-1-1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error