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Abstract

Understanding how pathogens spread across geographical space is fundamental for control measures such as vaccination. (the pneumococcus) is a respiratory bacterium responsible for a large proportion of infectious disease morbidity and mortality globally. Even in the post-vaccination era, the rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) remain stable in most countries, including Israel. To understand the geographical spread of the pneumococcus in Israel, we analysed 1174 pneumococcal genomes from patients with IPD across multiple regions. We included the evolutionary distance between pairs of isolates inferred using whole-genome data within a relative risk (RR) ratio framework to capture the geographical structure of . While we could not find geographical structure at the overall lineage level, the extra granularity provided by whole-genome sequence data showed that it takes approximately 5 years for invasive pneumococcal isolates to become fully mixed across the country.

This article contains data hosted by Microreact.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Wellcome Trust (Award 206194)
    • Principle Award Recipient: StephenD Bentley
  • Wellcome Trust (Award 098051)
    • Principle Award Recipient: StephenD Bentley
  • Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (Award OPP1034556)
    • Principle Award Recipient: StephenD Bentley
  • Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (Award OPP1034619)
    • Principle Award Recipient: StephenD Bentley
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
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2024-06-24
2024-07-15
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