1887

Abstract

is an opportunistic pathogen that affects both fish and mammals, including humans, leading to bacteraemia, sepsis, meningitis and even death. The increasing virulence and drug resistance of are of significant concern and pose a severe risk to public safety. The Type I restriction-modification (RM) system, which functions as a bacterial defence mechanism, can influence gene expression through DNA methylation. However, little research has been conducted to explore its origin, evolutionary path, and relationship to virulence and drug resistance in . In this study, we analysed the pan-genome of 233 . strains, and the results indicated that it was 'open', meaning that has acquired additional genes from other species. This suggested that had the potential to adapt and evolve rapidly, which might have contributed to its drug resistance. One Type I methyltransferase (MTase) and two complete Type I RM systems were identified, namely AveC4I, AveC4II and AveC4III in strain C4, respectively. Notably, AveC4I was exclusive to C4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AveC4I was derived from horizontal gene transfer from and exchanged genes with the human pathogen . Single molecule real-time sequencing was applied to identify the motif methylated by AveC4I, which was unique and not recognized by any reported MTases in the REBASE database. We also annotated the functions and pathways of the genes containing the motif, revealing that AveC4I may control drug resistance in C4. Our findings provide new insight on the mechanisms underlying drug resistance in pathogenic bacteria. By identifying the specific genes and pathways affected by AveC4I, this study may aid in the development of new therapeutic approaches to combat infections.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China (Award 31960027)
    • Principle Award Recipient: XiangMa
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China (Award 32000089)
    • Principle Award Recipient: XiangMa
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China (Award 32160038)
    • Principle Award Recipient: ZhuLiu
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China (Award 32060153)
    • Principle Award Recipient: HongLi
  • Hainan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Award 322RC589)
    • Principle Award Recipient: HongLi
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
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2023-09-27
2024-06-25
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