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Abstract

Linezolid is used as first-line treatment of infections caused by vancomycin-resistant . However, resistance to linezolid is increasingly detected. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the causes and mechanisms for the increase in linezolid-resistant at Copenhagen University Hospital – Rigshospitalet. We therefore combined patient information on linezolid treatment with whole-genome sequencing data for vancomycin- or linezolid-resistant isolates that had been systematically collected since 2014 (=458). Whole-genome sequencing was performed for multilocus sequence typing (MLST), identification of linezolid resistance-conferring genes/mutations and determination of phylogenetically closely related strains. The collection of isolates belonged to prevalent vancomycin-resistant MLST types. Among these, we identified clusters of closely related linezolid-resistant strains compatible with nosocomial transmission. We also identified linezolid-resistant enterococcus isolates not genetically closely related to other isolates compatible with generation of linezolid resistance. Patients with the latter isolates were significantly more frequently exposed to linezolid treatment than patients with related linezolid-resistant enterococcus isolates. We also identified six patients who initially carried a vancomycin-resistant, linezolid-sensitive enterococcus, but from whom vancomycin-resistant, linezolid-resistant enterococci (LVRE) closely related to their initial isolate were recovered after linezolid treatment. Our data illustrate that linezolid resistance may develop in the individual patient subsequent to linezolid exposure and can be transmitted between patients in a hospital setting.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Novo Nordisk Fonden (Award NNF16OC0023482)
    • Principle Award Recipient: SusanneHäussler
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
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2023-07-06
2024-07-13
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