1887

Abstract

Distancing measures during the COVID-19 lockdown led to a temporary decrease of casual sex partners among clients of the Centre for Sexual Health (CSH) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We investigated the effect of this change on the genotypic and phenotypic distribution of () isolates from CSH patients. From each positive patient we sequenced one isolate, resulting in 322 isolates which constituted two groups: 181 isolates cultured from 15 January to 29 February 2020 (before the first lockdown) and 141 cultured from 15 May to 30 June 2020 (during the first lockdown). Patient characteristics showed significantly more symptomatic patients and significantly fewer reported sex partners during the lockdown. Phenotypic data showed an increase in low-level azithromycin resistance and ceftriaxone susceptibility during the lockdown, and this remained after the study period. The diversity in sequence types (STs) decreased slightly during the lockdown. A shift occurred from ST 8156 being predominant before lockdown to ST 9362 during lockdown and a remarkably low median SNP distance of 17 SNPs was found between ST 9362 isolates obtained during lockdown. These findings reflect restricted travel and the change in sexual behaviour of CSH clients during the lockdown, with a potentially increased local transmission of the ST 9362 strain during this period, which led to genotypic and phenotypic changes in the population. This shows that public health measures have far-reaching consequences and should be considered in the surveillance of other infectious diseases.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Public Health Laboratory Amsterdam
    • Principle Award Recipient: NotApplicable
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. This article was made open access via a Publish and Read agreement between the Microbiology Society and the corresponding author’s institution.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/mgen/10.1099/mgen.0.000975
2023-04-06
2024-07-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/mgen/9/4/mgen000975.html?itemId=/content/journal/mgen/10.1099/mgen.0.000975&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Miranda MNS, Pingarilho M, Pimentel V, Torneri A, Seabra SG et al. A tale of three recent pandemics: influenza, HIV and SARS-CoV-2. Front Microbiol 2022; 13:889643 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Yan J, Li Y, Zhou P. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the epidemiology of STDs in China: based on the GM (1,1) model. BMC Infect Dis 2022; 22:519 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Kirkcaldy RD, Weston E, Segurado AC, Hughes G. Epidemiology of gonorrhoea: a global perspective. Sex Health 2019; 16:401–411 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Geretti AM, Mardh O, de Vries HJC, Winter A, McSorley J et al. Sexual transmission of infections across Europe: appraising the present, scoping the future. Sex Transm Infect 2022 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. van Bilsen WPH, Boyd A, van der Loeff MFS, Davidovich U, Hogewoning A et al. Diverging trends in incidence of HIV versus other sexually transmitted infections in HIV-negative MSM in Amsterdam. AIDS 2020; 34:301–309 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. RIVM-CIb-EPI Sexually transmitted infections in the Netherlands in 2020. National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, RIVM; 2021
  7. Crane MA, Popovic A, Stolbach AI, Ghanem KG. Reporting of sexually transmitted infections during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sex Transm Infect 2021; 97:101–102 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Rijksoverheid Coronavirus tijdlijn; 2022 wwwrijksoverheidnl/onderwerpen/coronavirus-tijdlijn accessed 24 July 2022
  9. van Bilsen WPH, Zimmermann HML, Boyd A, Coyer L, van der Hoek L et al. Sexual behavior and its determinants during COVID-19 restrictions among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021; 86:288–296 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Storer D, Prestage G, McManus H, Maher L, Bavinton BR et al. Relationship between sexual behaviors with non-committed relationship partners and COVID-19 restrictions and notification rates: results from a longitudinal study of gay and bisexual men in Australia. Sex Res Social Policy 2022; 2022:1–12 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. de Vries DC, Zimmermann HML, Drückler S, Davidovich U, Hoornenborg E et al. Barriers and motives for complying with “sexual distancing” among men who have sex with men during the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Amsterdam: a qualitative study. Sex Transm Dis 2022; 49:497–503 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chen S, Zhou Y, Chen Y, Gu J. fastp: an ultra-fast all-in-one FASTQ preprocessor. Bioinformatics 2018; 34:i884–i890 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Li H, Handsaker B, Wysoker A, Fennell T, Ruan J et al. The sequence alignment/map format and SAMtools. Bioinformatics 2009; 25:2078–2079 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Prjibelski A, Antipov D, Meleshko D, Lapidus A, Korobeynikov A. Using SPAdes De Novo Assembler. Curr Protoc Bioinformatics 2020; 70:e102 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gurevich A, Saveliev V, Vyahhi N, Tesler G. QUAST: quality assessment tool for genome assemblies. Bioinformatics 2013; 29:1072–1075 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Wood DE, Lu J, Langmead B. Improved metagenomic analysis with Kraken 2. Genome Biol 2019; 20:257 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Jolley KA, Bray JE, Maiden MCJ. Open-access bacterial population genomics: BIGSdb software, the PubMLST.org website and their applications. Wellcome Open Res 2018; 3:124 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Croucher NJ, Page AJ, Connor TR, Delaney AJ, Keane JA et al. Rapid phylogenetic analysis of large samples of recombinant bacterial whole genome sequences using Gubbins. Nucleic Acids Res 2015; 43:e15 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. de Korne-Elenbaas J, Bruisten SM, de Vries HJC, van Dam AP. Within-host genetic variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae over the course of infection. Microbiol Spectr 2022; 10:e0031322 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Köster J, Rahmann S. Snakemake--a scalable bioinformatics workflow engine. Bioinformatics 2012; 28:2520–2522 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Sánchez-Busó L, Cole MJ, Spiteri G, Day M, Jacobsson S et al. Europe-wide expansion and eradication of multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae lineages: a genomic surveillance study. Lancet Microbe 2022; 3:e452–e463 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Jongen VW, Zimmermann HML, Boyd A, Hoornenborg E, van den Elshout MAM et al. Transient changes in preexposure prophylaxis use and daily sexual behavior after the implementation of COVID-19 restrictions among men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021; 87:1111–1118 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Unemo M, Lahra MM, Escher M, Eremin S, Cole MJ et al. WHO global antimicrobial resistance surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae 2017-18: a retrospective observational study. Lancet Microbe 2021; 2:e627–e636 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Wadsworth CB, Arnold BJ, Sater MRA, Grad YH. Azithromycin resistance through interspecific acquisition of an epistasis-dependent efflux pump component and transcriptional regulator in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. mBio 2018; 9: [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. de Korne-Elenbaas J, Bruisten SM, de Vries HJC, Van Dam AP. Emergence of a Neisseria gonorrhoeae clone with reduced cephalosporin susceptibility between 2014 and 2019 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, revealed by genomic population analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2021; 76:1759–1768 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Unemo M, Lahra MM, Cole M, Galarza P, Ndowa F et al. World Health Organization Global Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (WHO GASP): review of new data and evidence to inform international collaborative actions and research efforts. Sex Health 2019; 16:412–425 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lewis DA. Will targeting oropharyngeal gonorrhoea delay the further emergence of drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains?. Sex Transm Infect 2015; 91:234–237 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/mgen/10.1099/mgen.0.000975
Loading
/content/journal/mgen/10.1099/mgen.0.000975
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary material 1

PDF

Supplementary material 2

EXCEL
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error