1887

Abstract

Soybean is the most important legume cropped worldwide and can highly benefit from the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) process. Brazil is recognized for its leadership in the use of inoculants and two strains, CPAC 15 (=SEMIA 5079) and CPAC 7 (=SEMIA 5080) compose the majority of the 70 million doses of soybean inoculants commercialized yearly in the country. We studied a collection of natural variants of these two strains, differing in properties of competitiveness and efficiency of BNF. We sequenced the genomes of the parental strain SEMIA 566 of , of three natural variants of this strain (S 204, S 340 and S 370), and compared with another variant of this group, strain CPAC 15. We also sequenced the genome of the parental strain SEMIA 586 of , of three natural variants of this strain (CPAC 390, CPAC 392 and CPAC 394) and compared with the genome of another natural variant, strain CPAC 7. As the main genes responsible for nodulation (, , ) and BNF (, ) in soybean are located in symbiotic islands, our objective was to identify genetic variations located in this region, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (indels), that could be potentially related to their different symbiotic phenotypes. We detected 44 genetic variations in the strains and three in . As the strains have gone through a longer period of adaptation to the soil, the higher number of genetic variations could be explained by survival strategies under the harsh environmental conditions of the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Genetic variations were detected in genes enconding proteins such as a dephospho-CoA kinase, related to the CoA biosynthesis; a glucosamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase, key regulator of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway; a LysR family transcriptional regulator related to nodulation genes; and NifE and NifS proteins, directly related to the BNF process. We suggest potential genetic variations related to differences in the symbiotic phenotypes.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • INCT - Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms for Agricultural Sustainability and Environmental Responsibility (Award CNPq 465133/2014-4, Fundação Araucária-STI 043/2019, CAPES)
    • Principle Award Recipient: MariangelaHungria
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License.
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2022-04-19
2022-07-06
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