1887

Abstract

causes over one million deaths from lower respiratory infections per annum worldwide. Although mortality is very high in Southeast Asian countries, molecular epidemiological information remains unavailable for some countries. In this study, we report, for the first time, the whole-genome sequences and genetic profiles of pneumococcal strains isolated in Myanmar. We isolated 60 streptococcal strains from 300 children with acute respiratory infection at Yangon Children’s Hospital in Myanmar. We obtained whole-genome sequences and identified the species, serotypes, sequence types, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, virulence factor profiles and pangenome structure using sequencing-based analysis. Average nucleotide identity analysis indicated that 58 strains were and the other 2 strains were . The major serotype was 19F (11 strains), followed by 6E (6B genetic variant; 7 strains) and 15 other serotypes; 5 untypable strains were also detected. Multilocus sequence typing analysis revealed 39 different sequence types, including 11 novel ones. In addition, genetic profiling indicated that AMR genes and mutations spread among pneumococcal strains in Myanmar. A minimum inhibitory concentration assay indicated that several pneumococcal strains had acquired azithromycin and tetracycline resistance, whereas no strains were found to be resistant against levofloxacin and high-dose penicillin G. Phylogenetic and pangenome analysis showed various pneumococcal lineages and that the pneumococcal strains contain a rich and mobile gene pool, providing them with the ability to adapt to selective pressures. This molecular epidemiological information can help in tracking global infection and supporting AMR control in addition to public health interventions in Myanmar.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Naito Foundation
    • Principle Award Recipient: ShigetadaKawabata
  • Kobayashi International Scholarship Foundation
    • Principle Award Recipient: ShigetadaKawabata
  • MSD Life Science Foundation, Public Interest Incorporated Foundation
    • Principle Award Recipient: MasayaYamaguchi
  • Takeda Science Foundation (JP)
    • Principle Award Recipient: MasayaYamaguchi
  • Japan Science and Technology Agency (JP) (Award S2019F0304157)
    • Principle Award Recipient: ShigetadaKawabata
  • Secom Science and Technology Foundation
    • Principle Award Recipient: MasayaYamaguchi
  • Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (Award 20wm0325001h0001)
    • Principle Award Recipient: MasayaYamaguchi
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Award 20K21675)
    • Principle Award Recipient: ShigetadaKawabata
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Award 19K22710)
    • Principle Award Recipient: MasayaYamaguchi
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Award 19H03825)
    • Principle Award Recipient: ShigetadaKawabata
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Award 18K19643)
    • Principle Award Recipient: ShigetadaKawabata
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Award 17K11666)
    • Principle Award Recipient: YujiroHirose
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Award 17H05103)
    • Principle Award Recipient: MasayaYamaguchi
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Award 16H05847)
    • Principle Award Recipient: ShigetadaKawabata
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
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2021-02-10
2021-10-16
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