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Abstract

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections requiring medical attention and a leading justification for antibiotic prescription. Trimethoprim is prescribed empirically for uncomplicated cases. UTIs are primarily caused by extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) and ExPEC strains play a central role in disseminating antimicrobial-resistance genes worldwide. Here, we describe the whole-genome sequences of trimethoprim-resistant ExPEC and/or ExPEC from recurrent UTIs (67 in total) from patients attending a regional Australian hospital from 2006 to 2008. Twenty-three sequence types (STs) were observed, with ST131 predominating (28 %), then ST69 and ST73 (both 7 %). Co-occurrence of trimethoprim-resistance genes with genes conferring resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactams, heavy metals and quaternary ammonium ions was a feature of the ExPEC described here. Seven trimethoprim-resistance genes were identified, most commonly (38 %) and (18 %). An uncommon variant was also observed. Two variants were identified – (16 %) and (10 %). The former was always associated with , the latter with , and all genes co-occurred with chromate-resistance gene . Eighteen class 1 integron structures were characterized, and featured in eight structures; genes featured in seventeen. ST131 H30Rx isolates possessed distinct antimicrobial gene profiles comprising , , , , , . The most common virulence-associated genes (VAGs) were , , and (all 91 %). Virulence profile clustering showed ST131 H30 isolates carried similar VAGs to ST73, ST405, ST550 and ST1193 isolates. The sole ST131 H27 isolate carried molecular predictors of enteroaggregative /ExPEC hybrid strains (, , ). Seven isolates (10 %) carried VAGs suggesting ColV plasmid carriage. Finally, SNP analysis of serial UTI patients experiencing worsening sequelae demonstrated a high proportion of point mutations in virulence factors.

  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License.
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2020-11-18
2021-10-21
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