1887

Abstract

is a Gram-negative bacterium capable of causing gastrointestinal infection and is closely related to the highly virulent plague bacillus . Infections by both species are currently treatable with antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, a quinolone-class drug of major clinical importance in the treatment of many other infections. Our current understanding of the mechanism of action of ciprofloxacin is that it inhibits DNA replication by targeting DNA gyrase, and that resistance is primarily due to mutation of this target site, along with generic efflux and detoxification strategies. We utilized transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS or TnSeq) to identify the non-essential chromosomal genes in that are required to tolerate sub-lethal concentrations of ciprofloxacin . As well as highlighting recognized antibiotic resistance genes, we provide evidence that multiple genes involved in regulating DNA replication and repair are central in enabling to tolerate the antibiotic, including DksA (yptb0734), a regulator of RNA polymerase, and Hda (yptb2792), an inhibitor of DNA replication initiation. We furthermore demonstrate that even at sub-lethal concentrations, ciprofloxacin causes severe cell-wall stress, requiring lipopolysaccharide lipid A, O-antigen and core biosynthesis genes to resist the sub-lethal effects of the antibiotic. It is evident that coping with the consequence(s) of antibiotic-induced stress requires the contribution of scores of genes that are not exclusively engaged in drug resistance.

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2019-10-03
2019-10-23
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