1887

Abstract

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has evolved as one of the leading multidrug-resistant pathogens responsible for a variety of nosocomial infections especially in highly debilitated patients. As information on the genomic and intraspecies diversity of this clinically important pathogen is limited, we sequenced the whole genome of 27 clinical isolates from hospitalized patients. Phylogenomic analysis along with the genomes of type strains suggested that the clinical isolates are distributed over the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia complex (Smc) within the genus Stenotrophomonas. Further genome-based taxonomy coupled with the genomes of type strains of the genus Stenotrophomonas allowed us to identify five cryptic genomospecies, which are associated with the clinical isolates of S. maltophilia and are potentially novel species. These isolates share a very small core genome that implies a high level of genetic diversity within the isolates. Recombination analysis of core genomes revealed that the impact of recombination is more than mutation in the diversification of clinical S. maltophilia isolates. Distribution analysis of well-characterized antibiotic-resistance and efflux pump genes of S. maltophilia across multiple novel genomospecies provided insights into its antibiotic-resistant ability. This study supports the existence of multiple cryptic species within the Smc besides S. maltophilia, which are associated with human infections, and highlights the importance of genome-based approaches to delineate bacterial species. This data will aid in improving clinical diagnosis and for understanding species-specific clinical manifestations of infection due to Stenotrophomonas species.

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2018-08-07
2019-09-18
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