1887

Abstract

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major agent of foodborne diseases worldwide. In Uruguay, this serovar was almost negligible until the mid 1990s but since then it has become the most prevalent. Previously, we characterized a collection of strains isolated from 1988 to 2005 and found that the two oldest strains were the most genetically divergent. In order to further characterize these strains, we sequenced and annotated eight genomes including those of the two oldest isolates. We report on the identification and characterization of a novel 44 kbp Salmonella prophage found exclusively in these two genomes. Sequence analysis reveals that the prophage is a mosaic, with homologous regions in different Salmonella prophages. It contains 60 coding sequences, including two genes, gogB and sseK3, involved in virulence and modulation of host immune response. Analysis of serovar Enteritidis genomes available in public databases confirmed that this prophage is absent in most of them, with the exception of a group of 154 genomes. All 154 strains carrying this prophage belong to the same sequence type (ST-1974), suggesting that its acquisition occurred in a common ancestor. We tested this by phylogenetic analysis of 203 genomes representative of the intraserovar diversity. The ST-1974 forms a distinctive monophyletic lineage, and the newly described prophage is a phylogenetic signature of this lineage that could be used as a molecular marker. The phylogenetic analysis also shows that the major ST (ST-11) is polyphyletic and might have given rise to almost all other STs, including ST-1974.

Keyword(s): lineages , prophages and Salmonella
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2018-03-06
2020-01-23
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