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Abstract

Introduction:

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by vector-borne protozoa of the genus . Cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms result in disfiguration or mutilation, whilst visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects multiple organs and is fatal if untreated. Notably, are capable of establishing a chronic infection, which may reactivate years after initial infection when the host becomes immune-suppressed.

Case Presentation:

A 24-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive male presented for excision of anal condylomas. At the time of his current condyloma excision, the patient had no additional symptoms or cutaneous findings, but was noted to have been only intermittently compliant with his antiretroviral therapy. Microscopic examination of the haematoxylin and eosin-stained anal condyloma tissue revealed koilocytic change, ulceration and brisk histiocytic inflammation containing numerous small intracellular bodies suggestive of amastigotes. A bone marrow biopsy was performed and demonstrated similar intracellular forms. Anal condyloma tissue and bone marrow aspirate were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Parasitic Diseases Branch for confirmation of and speciation. Specific immunohistochemical staining for in the tissue section was positive and the species was confirmed as by PCR. Subsequently, the patient resumed highly active antiretroviral therapy and received anti- therapy.

Conclusion:

Whilst the presentation of VL in HIV-positive patients is often similar to those without HIV, here we describe an unusual initial presentation of leishmaniasis in an HIV-positive patient where the parasite was found in an anal condyloma. VL is a critical diagnosis that should be considered and pursued when leishmaniasis is encountered in seemingly illogical clinical settings.

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2016-02-05
2020-01-24
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