1887

Abstract

This study describes the distribution and frequencies of strain types by protein A-encoding gene () typing among a total of 200 meticillin-resistant (MRSA) single-patient isolates collected between 2000 and 2005 at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. Nine frequent types accounted for 49.5 % of MRSA isolates, whereas type t041 (15 % of all isolates) belonged to a local epidemic strain that is also a common strain type in southern Germany. Successful control of the outbreak strain was documented by epidemiological data and confirmed by typing results. The type t044 (3.5 %), corresponding to a widely disseminated European community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA), was first observed in 2002. The well-known CA-MRSA USA300 clone was detected in four patients (2 %). Sporadic strains occurring less than four times (32 different types) accounted for 23 % of isolates. No predominant type was seen, indicating a great genetic diversity. Only 34.5 % of patient isolates were acquired nosocomially. The presence of one or more of ten common virulence genes was shown in 79 % of strains. It was demonstrated that the sequence-based typing method allows analysis of local MRSA epidemiology in relation to other regions and countries over time.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47757-0
2008-05-01
2019-11-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/57/5/612.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47757-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aires de Sousa, M., Conceicao, T., Simas, C. & de Lencastre, H. ( 2005; ). Comparison of genetic backgrounds of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Portuguese hospitals and the community. J Clin Microbiol 43, 5150–5157.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Deurenberg, R. H., Vink, C., Kalenic, S., Friedrich, A. W., Bruggeman, C. A. & Stobberingh, E. E. ( 2007; ). The molecular evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbiol Infect 13, 222–235.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Garner, J. S., Jarvis, W. R., Emori, T. G., Horan, T. C. & Hughes, J. M. ( 1988; ). CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988. Am J Infect Control 16, 128–140.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ghebremedhin, B., Konig, W. & Konig, B. ( 2005; ). Heterogeneity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains at a German university hospital during a 1-year period. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 24, 388–398.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Hallin, M., Deplano, A., Denis, O., De Mendonca, R., De Ryck, R. & Struelens, M. J. ( 2007; ). Validation of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and spa typing for long-term, nationwide epidemiological surveillance studies of Staphylococcus aureus infections. J Clin Microbiol 45, 127–133.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Harmsen, D., Claus, H., Witte, W., Rothganger, J., Claus, H., Turnwald, D. & Vogel, U. ( 2003; ). Typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a university hospital setting by using novel software for spa repeat determination and database management. J Clin Microbiol 41, 5442–5448.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Lina, G., Piemont, Y., Godail-Gamot, F., Bes, M., Peter, M. O., Gauduchon, V., Vandenesch, F. & Etienne, J. ( 1999; ). Involvement of Panton–Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus in primary skin infections and pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 29, 1128–1132.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Mehrotra, M., Wang, G. & Johnson, W. M. ( 2000; ). Multiplex PCR for detection of genes for Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and methicillin resistance. J Clin Microbiol 38, 1032–1035.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Mellmann, A., Friedrich, A. W., Kipp, F., Hinder, F., Keckevoet, U. & Harmsen, D. ( 2005; ). Evidence-based infection control methods using spa genotyping for MRSA spread in hospitals. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 130, 1364–1368 (in German).[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Mertz, D., Frei, R., Jaussi, B., Tietz, A., Stebler, C., Fluckiger, U. & Widmer, A. F. ( 2007; ). Throat swabs are necessary to reliably detect carriers of Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis 45, 475–477.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Murakami, K., Minamide, W., Wada, K., Nakamura, E., Teraoka, H. & Watanabe, S. ( 1991; ). Identification of methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 29, 2240–2244.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Ruppitsch, W., Indra, A., Stoger, A., Mayer, B., Stadlbauer, S., Wewalka, G. & Allerberger, F. ( 2006; ). Classifying spa types in complexes improves interpretation of typing results for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 44, 2442–2448.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Stranden, A., Frei, R. & Widmer, A. F. ( 2003; ). Molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: can PCR replace pulsed-field gel electrophoresis? J Clin Microbiol 41, 3181–3186.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Strommenger, B., Kettlitz, C., Weniger, T., Harmsen, D., Friedrich, A. W. & Witte, W. ( 2006; ). Assignment of Staphylococcus isolates to groups by spa typing, SmaI macrorestriction analysis, and multilocus sequence typing. J Clin Microbiol 44, 2533–2540.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Tietz, A., Frei, R. & Widmer, A. F. ( 2005; ). Transatlantic spread of the USA300 clone of MRSA. N Engl J Med 353, 532–533.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Van Belkum, A., Van Leeuwen, W., Kaufmann, M. E., Cookson, B., Forey, F., Etienne, J., Goering, R., Tenover, F., Steward, C. & other authors ( 1998; ). Assessment of resolution and intercenter reproducibility of results of genotyping Staphylococcus aureus by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of SmaI macrorestriction fragments: a multicenter study. J Clin Microbiol 36, 1653–1659.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Vandenesch, F., Naimi, T., Enright, M. C., Lina, G., Nimmo, G. R., Heffernan, H., Liassine, N., Bes, M., Greenland, T. & other authors ( 2003; ). Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying Panton–Valentine leukocidin genes: worldwide emergence. Emerg Infect Dis 9, 978–984.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Yamasaki, O., Tristan, A., Yamaguchi, T., Sugai, M., Lina, G., Bes, M., Vandenesch, F. & Etienne, J. ( 2006; ). Distribution of the exfoliative toxin D gene in clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates in France. Clin Microbiol Infect 12, 585–588.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47757-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47757-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error