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Abstract

TUBEX (IDL Biotech) is a 5 min semiquantitative colorimetric test for typhoid fever, a widely endemic disease. TUBEX detects anti- O9 antibodies from a patient's serum by the ability of these antibodies to inhibit the binding between an indicator antibody-bound particle and a magnetic antigen-bound particle. Herein, we report that TUBEX could also be used to specifically detect soluble O9 lipopolysaccharide in antigen-spiked buffer by the ability of the antigen to inhibit the same binding between the particles. Sensitivity of antigen detection was improved (8–31 μg ml) by using a modified protocol in which the test sample was mixed with the indicator particles first, rather than with the magnetic particles as for antibody detection. The antigen was also detectable in spiked serum and urine samples, albeit less well (2–4-fold) than in buffer generally. However, no antigen was detected from six typhoid sera examined, all of which had anti-O9 antibodies. In addition, whole organisms of Typhi (15 strains) and Enteritidis (6 strains) (both O9 ), grown in simulated blood broths or on MacConkey agar, were also detectable by TUBEX when suspended at >9×10 organisms ml. Expectedly, Paratyphi A (7 strains), Typhimurium (1 strain) and (2 strains) were negative in the test. Thus, the same TUBEX kit may be used in several ways both serologically and microbiologically for the rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever. However, validation of the newer applications will require the systematic examination of real patient and laboratory materials.

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2008-03-01
2019-10-14
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