1887

Abstract

A previous study using bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries revealed that the microbiota in healthy human skin included uncultured micro-organisms, although the micro-organisms in skin exposed to disease conditions remain to be examined. To compare the profiles of skin microbiota in 13 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and 10 healthy controls, terminal RFLP analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes was applied to 23 swab-scrubbed samples from facial skin. This culture-independent analysis successfully revealed the complex bacterial members of the microbiota as peak patterns following capillary electrophoresis of terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs). Each T-RF peak reflected a micro-organism, and the micro-organism to which each peak was assigned could be identified by computer simulation of T-RF length using the nucleotide sequence data of bacterial species residing in the skin. Among 18 species detected in the study, was detected significantly more commonly in AD patients (5/13 for AD patients vs 0/10 for controls), whilst was detected significantly more commonly in normal controls (8/10 for controls vs 2/13 for AD patients). Moreover, species, which are considered to be uncommon in uninfected skin, were detected in seven patients and eight normal controls. Although further studies should be undertaken to investigate the roles of these micro-organisms in AD, the microbiota were presumed to include hitherto uninvestigated bacterial species in the major population of patients with AD and of healthy controls.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47268-0
2007-12-01
2019-11-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/56/12/1675.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47268-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Altschul, S. F., Madden, T. L., Schaffer, A. A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W. & Lipman, D. J. ( 1997; ). Gapped blast and psi-blast: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 25, 3389–3402.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Dekio, I., Hayashi, H., Sakamoto, M., Kitahara, M., Nishikawa, T., Suematsu, M. & Benno, Y. ( 2005; ). Detection of potentially novel bacterial components of the human skin microbiota using culture-independent molecular profiling. J Med Microbiol 54, 1231–1238.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Egert, M. & Friedrich, M. W. ( 2003; ). Formation of pseudo-terminal restriction fragments, a PCR-related bias affecting terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of microbial community structure. Appl Environ Microbiol 69, 2555–2562.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis ( 1993; ). Severity scoring of atopic dermatitis: the SCORAD index. Consensus Report of the European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis. Dermatology 186, 23–31.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Evans, C. A. ( 1975; ). Persistent individual differences in the bacterial flora of the skin of the forehead: numbers of propionibacteria. J Invest Dermatol 64, 42–46.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Fredricks, D. N. ( 2001; ). Microbial ecology of human skin in health and disease. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 6, 167–169.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Gao, Z., Tseng, C.-H., Pei, Z. & Blaser, M. J. ( 2007; ). Molecular analysis of human forearm superficial skin bacterial biota. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 2927–2932.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gloor, M., Peters, G. & Stoika, D. ( 1982; ). On the resident aerobic bacterial skin flora in unaffected skin of patients with atopic dermatitis and in healthy controls. Dermatologica 164, 258–265.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hanifin, J. M. & Rajka, G. ( 1980; ). Diagnostic features of atopic eczema. Acta Dermatol Venereol (Stockh) 92, 44–47.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hauben, L., Vauterin, L., Moore, E. R., Hoste, B. & Swings, J. ( 1999; ). Genomic diversity of the genus Stenotrophomonas. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1749–1760.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hayashi, H., Sakamoto, M. & Benno, Y. ( 2002; ). Phylogenetic analysis of the human gut microbiota using 16S rDNA clone libraries and strictly anaerobic culture-based methods. Microbiol Immunol 46, 535–548.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Lane, D. J. ( 1991; ). 16S/23S rRNA sequencing. In Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 115–175. Edited by E. Stackebrandt & M. Goodfellow. New York: Wiley.
  13. Leyden, J. J., Marples, R. R. & Kligman, A. M. ( 1974; ). Staphylococcus aureus in the lesions in atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 90, 525–530.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Liu, W.-T., Marsh, T. L., Cheng, H. & Forney, L. J. ( 1997; ). Characterization of microbial diversity by determining terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of genes encoding 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 63, 4516–4522.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. London, C. J. & Griffith, I. P. ( 1984; ). Characterization of pseudomonads isolated from diseased fleece. Appl Environ Microbiol 47, 993–997.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Marples, R. ( 1982; ). The normal flora of different sites in the young adult. Curr Med Res Opin 7, 67–70.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Marples, R. R. & McGinley, K. J. ( 1974; ). Corynebacterium acnes and other anaerobic diphtheroids from human skin. J Med Microbiol 7, 349–357.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Matsumoto, M. & Benno, Y. ( 2007; ). The relationship between microbiota and polyamine concentration in the human intestine: a pilot study. Microbiol Immunol 51, 25–35.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Mengoni, A., Grassi, E. & Bazzicalupo, M. ( 2002; ). Cloning method for taxonomic interpretation of T-RFLP patterns. Biotechniques 33, 990–992.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Nelson, K. E., Paulsen, I. T., Heidelberg, J. F. & Fraser, C. M. ( 2000; ). Status of genome projects for nonpathogenic bacteria and archea. Nat Biotechnol 18, 1049–1054.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ogawa, T., Katsuoka, K., Kawano, K. & Nishiyama, S. ( 1994; ). Comparative study of staphylococcal flora on the skin surface of atopic dermatitis patients and healthy subjects. J Dermatol 21, 453–460.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Paster, B. J., Boches, S. K., Galvin, J. L., Ericson, R. E., Lau, C. N., Levanos, V. A., Sahasrabudhe, A. & Dewhirst, F. E. ( 2001; ). Bacterial diversity in human subgingival plaque. J Bacteriol 183, 3770–3783.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Pournaras, C. C., Lubbe, J. & Saurat, J. H. ( 2001; ). Staphylococcal colonization in atopic dermatitis treatment with topical tacrolimus (Fk506). J Invest Dermatol 116, 480–481.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Remitz, A., Kyllonen, H., Granlund, H. & Reitamo, S. ( 2001; ). Tacrolimus ointment reduces staphylococcal colonization of atopic dermatitis lesions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107, 196–197.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rieg, S., Steffen, H., Seeber, S., Humeny, A., Kalbacher, H., Dietz, K., Garbe, C. & Schittek, B. ( 2005; ). Deficiency of dermcidin-derived antimicrobial peptides in sweat of patients with atopic dermatitis correlates with an impaired innate defense of human skin in vivo. J Immunol 174, 8003–8010.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Sakamoto, M., Takeuchi, Y., Umeda, M., Ishikawa, I. & Benno, Y. ( 2003; ). Application of terminal RFLP analysis to characterize oral bacterial flora in saliva of healthy subjects and patients with periodontitis. J Med Microbiol 52, 79–89.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sakamoto, M., Huang, Y., Ohnishi, M., Umeda, M., Ishikawa, I. & Benno, Y. ( 2004; ). Changes in oral microbial profiles after periodontal treatment as determined by molecular analysis of 16S rRNA genes. J Med Microbiol 53, 563–571.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Senol, E. ( 2004; ). Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: the significance and role as a nosocomial pathogen. J Hosp Infect 57, 1–7.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Suau, A., Bonnet, R., Sutren, M., Godon, J.-J., Gibson, G. R., Collins, M. D. & Doré, J. ( 1999; ). Direct analysis of genes encoding 16S rRNA from complex communities reveals many novel molecular species within the human gut. Appl Environ Microbiol 65, 4799–4807.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Vartivarian, S. E., Papadakis, K. A. & Anaissie, E. J. ( 1996; ). Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) maltophilia urinary tract infection. A disease that is usually severe and complicated. Arch Intern Med 156, 433–435.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47268-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47268-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error