1887

Abstract

is the second or third most frequent cause of candidaemia. The gastrointestinal tract is considered to be a major portal of entry for systemic candidiasis, but relatively few studies have investigated the pathogenesis of . Experiments were designed to clarify the ability of to disseminate from the mouse intestinal tract. Following oral inoculation, readily colonized the caeca [approx. 10 cells (g caecum)] of antibiotic-treated mice, but extraintestinal dissemination was not detected. Superimposing several mouse models of trauma and/or immunosuppression known to induce dissemination of and other intestinal microbes did not cause to disseminate often, although one exception was mice given high doses of dexamethasone for 4 days. These data support the hypothesis that the antibiotic-treated mouse intestine may be an epidemiological reservoir for and that this yeast tends to disseminate under specific clinical conditions.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47049-0
2007-05-01
2020-08-09
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/56/5/688.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47049-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Alexander J. W., Boyce S. T., Babcock G. F., Gianotti L., Peck M. D., Dunn D. L., Pyles T., Childress C. P., Ash S. K. 1990; The process of microbial translocation. Ann Surg 212:496–510 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Andrutis K. A., Riggle P. J., Kumamoto C. A., Tzipori S. 2000; Intestinal lesions associated with disseminated candidiasis in an experimental animal model. J Clin Microbiol 38:2317–2323
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bendel C. M., Wiesner S. M., Garni R. M., Cebelinski E., Wells C. L. 2002; Cecal colonization and systemic spread of Candida albicans in mice treated with antibiotics and dexamethasone. Pediatr Res 51:290–295 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bendel C. M., Hess D. J., Garni R. M., Henry-Stanley M., Wells C. L. 2003; Comparative virulence of Candida albicans yeast and filamentous forms in orally and intravenously inoculated mice. Crit Care Med 31:501–507 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Berg R., Bernasconi P., Fowler D., Gautreaux M. 1993; Inhibition of Candida albicans translocation from the gastrointestinal tract of mice by oral administration of Saccharomyces boulardii . J Infect Dis 168:1314–1318 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Blijlevens N. M. A., Donnelly J. P., De Pauw B. E. 2002; Impaired gut function as risk factor for invasive candidiasis in neutropenic patients. Br J Haematol 117:259–264 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Blot S., Vandewoude K., Hoste E., Poelaert J., Colardyn F. 2001; Outcomes in critically ill patients with candidal fungaemia: Candida albicans vs. Candida glabrata . J Hosp Infect 47:308–313 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Brieland J., Essig D., Jackson C., Frank D., Loebenberg D., Menzel F., Arnold B., DiDomenico B., Hare R. 2001; Comparison of pathogenesis and host immune responses to Candida glabrata and Candida albicans in systemically infected immunocompetent mice. Infect Immun 69:5046–5055 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cantorna M. T., Balish E. 1990; Mucosal and systemic candidiasis in congenitally immunodeficient mice. Infect Immun 58:1093–1100
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Charles P. E., Doise J. M., Quenot J. P., Aube H., Dalle F., Chavanet P., Nilesi N., Aho L. S., Portier H., Blettery B. 2003; Candidemia in critically ill patients: difference of outcome between medical and surgical patients. Intensive Care Med 29:2162–2169 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cole G. T., Halawa A. A., Anaissie E. J. 1996; The role of the gastrointestinal tract in hematogenous candidiasis: from laboratory to the bedside. Clin Infect Dis 22 (Suppl. 2):S73–S88 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Csank C., Haynes K. 2000; Candida glabrata displays pseudohyphal growth. FEMS Microbiol Lett 189:115–120 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Czuprynski C. J., Brown J. F., Maroushek N., Wagner R. D., Steinberg H. 1994; Administration of anti-granulocyte mAb RB6-8C5 impairs the resistance of mice to Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol 152:1836–1846
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Deitch E. A., Specian R. D., Berg R. D. 1991; Endotoxin-induced bacterial translocation and mucosal permeability: role of xanthine oxidase, complement activation, and macrophage products. Crit Care Med 19:785–791 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Dienstknecht T., Schwacha M. G., Kang S. C., Rue L. W., Bland K. I., Chaudry I. H. 2004; Sex steroid-mediated regulation of macrophage/monocyte function in a two-hit model of trauma-hemorrhage and sepsis. Cytokine 25:110–118 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Ekenna O., Sherertz R. J. 1987; Factors affecting colonization and dissemination of Candida albicans from the gastrointestinal tract of mice. Infect Immun 55:1558–1563
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Fidel P. L., Vazquez J. A., Sobel J. D. 1999; Candida glabrata : review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical disease with comparison to C. albicans . Clin Microbiol Rev 12:80–96
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Helstrom P. B., Balish E. 1979; Effect of oral tetracycline, the microbial flora, and the athymic state on gastrointestinal colonization and infection of BALB/c mice with Candida albicans . Infect Immun 23:764–774
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Henry-Stanley M. J., Hess D. J., Erickson E. A., Garni R. M., Wells C. L. 2003; Effect of lipopolysaccharide on virulence of intestinal Candida albicans . J Surg Res 113:42–49 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kennedy M. J., Volz P. A. 1985; Ecology of Candida albicans gut colonization: inhibition of Candida adhesion, colonization, and dissemination from the gastrointestinal tract by bacterial antagonism. Infect Immun 49:654–663
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kim A. S., Garni R. M., Henry-Stanley M. J., Bendel C. M., Erlandsen S. L., Wells C. L. 2003; Hypoxia and extraintestinal dissemination of Candida albicans yeast forms. Shock 19:257–262 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Magnotti L. J., Deitch E. A. 2005; Burns, bacterial translocation, gut barrier function, and failure. J Burn Care Rehab 26:383–391 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Mazur L., Augustynek A., Daptata A., Halicka H. D., Bedner E. 2002; Effects of WR-2721 and cyclophosphamide on the cell cycle phase specificity of apoptosis in mouse bone marrow. Anticancer Drugs 13:751–758 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Mishima S., Yukioka T., Matsuda H., Shimazaki S. 1997; Mild hypertension and body burns synergistically increase bacterial translocation in rats consistent with a ‘two-hit phenomenon’. J Burn Care Rehabil 18:22–26 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Miyazaki S., Fujikawa T., Kobayashi I., Matsumoto T., Tateda K., Yamaguchi K. 2001; Development of systemic bacteremia after oral inoculation of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in mice. J Med Microbiol 50:695–701
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Pappas P. G., Rex J. H., Lee J., Hamill R. J., Larsen R. A., Powderly W., Kauffman C. A., Hyslop N., Mangino J. E. other authors 2003; A perspective observational study of candidemia: epidemiology, therapy, and influences on mortality in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients. Clin Infect Dis 37:634–643 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Peres-Bota D., Rodriguez-Villalobos H., Dimopoulos G., Melot C., Vincent J.-L. 2004; Potential risk factors for infection with Candida spp. in critically ill patients. Clin Microbiol Infect 10:550–555 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Rangel-Frausto M. S., Wiblin T., Blumberg H. M., Saiman L., Patterson J., Rinaldi M., Pfaller M., Edwards J. E. Jr, Jarvis W. other authors 1999; National epidemiology of mycoses survey (NEMIS): variations in rates of bloodstream infections due to Candida species in seven surgical intensive care units and six neonatal intensive care units. NEMIS Study Group. Clin Infect Dis 29:253–258 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ruhnke M. 2006; Epidemiology of Candida albicans infections and role of non- Candida albicans yeasts. Curr Drug Targets 7:495–504 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Salman F. T., Buyruk M. N., Celik A. 1992; The effect of surgical trauma on the bacterial translocation from the gut. J Pediatr Surg 27:802–804 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Spellberg B., Ibrahim A. S., Edwards J. E. Jr, Filler S. G. 2005; Mice with disseminated candidiasis die of progressive sepsis. J Infect Dis 192:336–343 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Suzuki T., Shimizu T., Szalay L., Choudhry M. A., Rue L. W., Bland K. I., Chaudry I. H. 2006; Androstenediol ameliorates alterations in immune cells cytokine production capacity in a two-hit model of trauma-hemorrhage and sepsis. Cytokine 34:76–84 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Weinberger M., Leibovici L., Perez S., Samra Z., Ostfeld I., Levi I., Bash E., Turner D., Goldschmied-Reouven A. other authors 2005; Characteristics of candidemia with Candida albicans compared with non-albicans Candida species and predictors of mortality. J Hosp Infect 61:146–154 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Wells C. L., Maddaus M. A., Reynolds C. M., Jechorek R. P., Simmons R. L. 1987; Role of anaerobic flora in the translocation of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic intestinal bacteria. Infect Immun 55:2689–2694
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Wiesner S. M., Jechorek R. P., Garni R. M., Bendel C. M., Wells C. L. 2001; Gastrointestinal colonization of Candida albicans mutant strains in antibiotic-treated mice. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8:192–195
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Winn W., Allen S., Janda W., Koneman E., Procop G., Schreckenberger P., Woods G. 2006 Koneman's Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology , 6th edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins;
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Wisplinghoff H., Bischoff T., Tallent S. M., Seifert H., Wenzel R. P., Edmond M. B. 2004; Nosocomial blood stream infections in US hospitals: analysis of 24,179 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study. Clin Infect Dis 39:309–317 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47049-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.47049-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error