1887

Abstract

A national multicentre cross-sectional study was undertaken on the correlates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a sample of inmates from eight Ghanaian prisons. A total of 1366 inmates from eight of the ten regional central prisons in Ghana were enrolled between May 2004 and December 2005. Subjects voluntarily completed a risk-factor questionnaire and provided blood specimens for unlinked anonymous testing for the presence of antibodies to HCV. These data were analysed using both univariate and multivariate techniques. The median age of participants was 36.5 years (range 16–84 years). Of the 1366 inmates tested, HCV seroprevalence was 18.7 %. On multivariate analysis, the independent determinants of HCV infection were being incarcerated for longer than the median time served of 36 months [odds ratio (OR) 5.8; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 5.0–6.9], history of intravenous drug use (OR 4.5; 95 % CI 3.8–5.4) and homosexuality (OR 3.1; 95 % CI 2.5–3.9). Consistent with similar studies worldwide, the prevalence of HCV in prison inmates was higher than the general population in Ghana, suggesting probable transmission in prisons in Ghana through intravenous drug use and unsafe sexual behaviour.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46859-0
2007-03-01
2019-11-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/56/3/391.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46859-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Acquaye, J. K. & Tettey-Donkor, D. ( 2000; ). Frequency of hepatitis C virus antibodies and elevated serum alanine transaminase levels in Ghanaian blood donors. West Afr J Med 19, 239–241.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adjei, A. A., Armah, H. B., Gbagbo, F., Ampofo, W. K., Quaye, I. K. E., Hesse, I. F. A. & Mensah, G. ( 2006; ). Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and syphilis among prison inmates and officers at Nsawam and Accra, Ghana. J Med Microbiol 55, 593–597.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Alizadeh, A. H. M., Alavian, S. M., Jafari, K. & Yazdi, N. ( 2005; ). Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection and its related risk factors in drug abuser prisoners in Hamedan, Iran. World J Gastroenterol 11, 4085–4089.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ampofo, W., Nii-Trebi, N., Ansah, J., Abe, K., Naito, H., Aidoo, S., Nuvor, V., Brandful, J., Yamamoto, N. & other authors ( 2002; ). Prevalence of blood-borne infectious diseases in blood donors in Ghana. J Clin Microbiol 40, 3523–3525.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Candotti, D., Sarkodie, F. & Allain, J. P. ( 2001; ). Residual risk of transfusion in Ghana. Br J Haematol 113, 37–39.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Catalan-Soares, B. C., Almeida, R. T. P. & Carneiro-Proietti, A. B. F. ( 2000; ). Prevalence of HIV-1/2, HTLV-I/II, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Treponema pallidum and Trypanosoma cruzi among prison inmates at Manhuacu, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 33, 27–30.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chetwynd, J., Brunton, C., Blank, M., Plumridge, E. & Baldwin, D. ( 1995; ). Hepatitis C seroprevalence amongst injecting drug users attending a methadone programme. N Z Med J 108, 364–366.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Farell, M., Howes, S., Taylor, C., Lewis, G., Jenkins, R. & Bebbington, P. ( 1998; ). Substance misuse and psychiatric co-morbidity: an overview of the OPCS National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Addict Behav 23, 909–918.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ghana Prisons Service ( 2004; ). Ghana Prisons Service Report on National Prisons, HIV/AIDS survey, pp. 1–35.
  10. Hammett, T. M., Harmon, M. P. & Rhodes, W. ( 2002; ). The burden of infectious diseases among inmates of and released from US correctional facilities, 1997. Am J Public Health 92, 1789–1794.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Lassey, A. T., Damale, N. K., Bekoe, V. & Klufio, C. A. ( 2004; ). Hepatitis C virus seroprevalence among mothers delivering at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana. East Afr Med J 81, 198–201.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Madhava, V., Burgees, C. & Drucker, E. ( 2002; ). Epidemiology of chronic hepatitis C infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet Infect Dis 2, 293–302.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Martinson, F. E., Weigle, K. A., Mushahwar, I. K., Weber, D. J., Royce, R. & Lemon, S. M. ( 1996; ). Seroepidemiological survey of hepatitis B and C virus infections in Ghanaian children. J Med Virol 48, 278–283.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Mertz, J. K., Voight, R. A., Hutchins, K., Levine, W. C. & the Jail Prevalence Monitoring Group ( 2002; ). Findings from STD screening of adolescents and adults entering corrections facilities: implications for STD control strategies. Sex Transm Dis 29, 834–839.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Mutter, R. C., Grimes, R. M. & Labarthe, D. ( 1994; ). Evidence of intraprison spread of HIV infection. Arch Intern Med 154, 793–795.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Reindollar, R. W. ( 1999; ). Hepatitis C and the correctional population. Am J Med 107, 100–103.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Sarkodie, F., Adarkwa, M., Adu-Sarkodie, Y., Candotti, D., Acheampong, J. W. & Allain, J. P. ( 2001; ). Screening for viral markers in volunteer and replacement blood donors in West Africa. Vox Sang 80, 142–147.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Skoretz, S., Zaniewski, G. & Goedhuis, N. J. ( 2004; ). Hepatitis C virus transmission in the prison/inmate population. Can Commun Dis Report 30, 16–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Solomon, L., Flynn, C., Muck, K. & Vertefeuille, J. ( 2004; ). Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C among entrants to Maryland Correctional Facilities. J Urban Health 81, 25–37.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Spaulding, A., Greene, C., Davidson, K., Schneiderman, M. & Rich, J. ( 1999; ). Hepatitis C in state correctional facilities. Prev Med 28, 92–100.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Stratton, E., Sweet, L., Latorraca-Walsh, A. & Gully, P. R. ( 1997; ). Hepatitis C in Prince Edward Island: a descriptive review of reported cases, 1990–1995. Can J Public Health 88, 91–94.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Tsega, E., Nordenfeit, E. & Hansson, B. G. ( 1995; ). Hepatitis C virus infection and chronic liver disease in Ethiopia, where hepatitis B infection is hyperendemic. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89, 171–174.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Veeken, H. ( 2000; ). Lurigancho prison: Lima's “high school” for criminality. BMJ 320, 173–175.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Wansbrough-Jones, M. H., Frimpong, E., Cant, B., Harris, K., Evans, M. R. & Teo, C. G. ( 1998; ). Prevalence and genotype of hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women and blood donors in Ghana. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92, 496–499.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Weinbaum, C. M., Sabin, K. M. & Santibanez, S. S. ( 2005; ). Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV in correctional populations: a review of epidemiology and prevention. AIDS 19 (Suppl.), S41–S46.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Weild, A. R., Gill, O. N., Bennett, D., Livingstone, S. J., Parry, J. V. & Curran, L. ( 2000; ). Prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C antibodies in prisoners in England and Wales: a national survey. Commun Dis Public Health 3, 121–126.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. World Health Organization ( 1999; ). Hepatitis C: global prevalence. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 74, 421–428.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46859-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46859-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error