1887

Abstract

To understand better the mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in , fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants isolated from ATCC 29212 by stepwise selection with sparfloxacin (SPX) and norfloxacin (NOR) were analysed. The results showed the following. (i) In general, fluoroquinolone-resistance mechanisms in are similar to those in other Gram-positive bacteria, such as and , namely, mutants with amino acid changes in both GyrA and ParC exhibited high fluoroquinolone resistance, and single GyrA mutants and a single ParC mutant were more resistant to SPX and NOR, respectively, than the parent strain, indicating that the primary targets of SPX and NOR in are DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, respectively. (ii) Alterations in GyrB (ΔKGA, residues 395–397) and ParE (Glu-459 to Lys) were associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in some mutants. Moreover, the facts that the NOR MIC, but not the SPX MIC, decreased in the presence of multidrug efflux pump inhibitors, that NOR accumulation decreased in the cells, and that the EmeA mRNA expression level did not change, strongly suggested that a NorA-like efflux pump, rather than EmeA, was involved in resistance to NOR.

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2006-10-01
2019-10-22
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