1887

Abstract

A human rotavirus strain (NB-150) was detected in stool samples from a neonate hospitalized for mild/moderate community-acquired diarrhoea. This baby lived in the outskirts of Belém, Brazil, under poor sanitation conditions. The NB-150 strain displayed a typical long electrophoretic pattern with 11 gene segments. It had two VP7 alleles, G1 and G4, and belonged to VP6 subgroup II. A close relatedness with human rotaviruses was shown for VP7 alleles: G1 (96.9–100 % similarity at the amino acid level) and G4 (97.1–100 % similarity at the amino acid level). As for VP6, 95.1–97.5 % similarity at the amino acid level was noted. VP8* and NSP4 genes showed a close relatedness with those of porcine rotavirus strains, as follows: VP8* (95.0 % similarity at the amino acid level) and NSP4 (93.7–96.0 % similarity at the amino acid level). This is believed to be the first report in Brazil of a rotavirus infection involving a strain with G1 and G4 alleles, with VP8* and NSP4 genes of porcine origin. These findings strongly suggest the occurrence of interspecies transmission.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46635-0
2007-04-01
2021-10-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/56/4/524.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46635-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Alfieri A. A., Leite J. P., Nakagomi O., Kaga E., Woods P. A., Glass R. I., Gentsch J. R. 1996; Characterization of human rotavirus genotype P[8]G5 from Brazil by probe-hybridization and sequence. Arch Virol 141:2353–2364 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Araújo I. T., Ferreira M. S., Fialho A. M., Assis R. M., Cruz C. M., Rocha M., Leite J. P. 2001; Rotavirus genotypes P[4]G9, P[6]G9, and P[8]G9 in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil. J Clin Microbiol 39:1999–2001 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Araújo I. T., Fialho A. M., de Assis R. M., Rocha M., Galvao M., Cruz C. M., Ferreira M. S., Leite J. P. 2002; Rotavirus strain diversity in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: characterization of VP4 and VP7 genotypes in hospitalized children. J Trop Pediatr 48:214–218 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Arista S., Giammanco G. M., De Grazia S., Colomba C., Martella V. 2005; Genetic variability among serotype G4 Italian human rotaviruses. J Clin Microbiol 43:1420–1425 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ball J. M., Tian P., Zeng C. Q., Morris A. P., Estes M. K. 1996; Age-dependent diarrhoea induced by a rotaviral nonstructural glycoprotein. Science 272:101–104 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ball J. M., Mitchell D. M., Gibbons T. F., Parr R. D. 2005; Rotavirus NSP4: a multifunctional viral enterotoxin. Viral Immunol 18:27–40 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bányai K., Gentsch J. R., Griffin D. D., Holmes J. L., Glass R. I., Szucs G. 2003; Genetic variability among serotype G6 human rotaviruses: identification of a novel lineage isolated in Hungary. J Med Virol 71:124–134 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bányai K., Martella V., Jakab F., Melegh B. M., Szücs G. 2004; Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of human genotype P[6] rotavirus strains detected in Hungary provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity within the P[6] VP4 gene. J Clin Microbiol 42:4338–4343 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Berois M., Libersou S., Russi J., Arbiza J., Cohen J. 2003; Genetic variation in the VP7 gene of human rotavirus isolated in Montevideo-Uruguay from 1996–1999. J Med Virol 71:456–462 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bishop R. F., Unicomb L. E., Barnes G. L. 1991; Epidemiology of rotavirus serotypes in Melbourne, Australia, from 1973 to 1989. J Clin Microbiol 29:862–868
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bok K., Matson D. O., Gómez J. A. 2002; Genetic variation of capsid protein VP7 in genotype G4 human rotavirus strains: simultaneous emergence and spread of different lineages in Argentina. J Clin Microbiol 40:2016–2022 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Boom R., Sol C. J. A., Salimans M. M. M., Jansen C. L., Wertheim-Van Dillen P. M. E., Van Der Noordaa J. 1990; Rapid and simple method for purifications of nucleic acids. J Clin Microbiol 28:495–503
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Ciarlet M., Liprandi F., Conner M. E., Estes M. K. 2000; Species specificity and interspecies relatedness of NSP4 genetic groups by comparative NSP4 analysis of animal rotaviruses. Arch Virol 145:371–383 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cunliffe N. A., Rogerson S., Dove W., Thindwa B. D. M., Greensill J., Kirkwood C. D., Broadhead R. L., Hart C. A. 2002; Detection and characterization of rotaviruses in hospitalized neonates in Blantyre. Malawi. J Clin Microbiol 40:1534–1537 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Cunliffe N. A., Woods P. A., Leite J. P. G., Das B. K., Ramachandran M., Bhan M. K., Hart C. A., Glass R. I., Gentsch J. R. 1997; Sequence analysis of NSP4 gene of human rotavirus allows classification into two main genetic groups. J Med Virol 53:41–50 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Das B. K., Gentsch J. R., Cicirello H. G., Woods P. A., Ramachandran M., Gupta A., Kumar R., Bhan M. K., Glass R. I. 1994; Characterization of rotavirus strains from newborns in New Delhi, India. J Clin Microbiol 32:1820–1822
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Das B. K., Gentsch J. R., Hoshino Y., Ishida S.-I., Nakagomi O., Bhan M. K., Kumar R., Glass R. I. 1993; Characterization of the G serotype and genogroup of New Delhi newborn rotavirus strain 116E. Virology 197:99–107 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dunn S. J., Burns J. W., Cross T. L., Vo P. T., Ward R. L., Bremont M., Greenberg H. B. 1994; Comparison of VP4 and VP7 of five murine rotavirus strains. Virology 203:250–259 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Estes M. K. 2001; Rotaviruses and their replication. In Fields Virology , 4th edn. pp  1747–1785 Edited by Knipe D. M., Howley P. M. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Fischer T. K., Eugen-Olsen J., Pedersen A. G., Molbak K., Bottiger B., Rostgaard K., Nielsen N. M. 2005; Characterization of rotavirus strains in a Danish population: high frequency of mixed infections and diversity within the VP4 gene of P[8] strains. J Clin Microbiol 43:1099–1104 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Fujiwara Y., Nakagomi O. 1997; Interspecies sharing of two distinct nonstructural protein 1 alleles among human and animal rotaviruses as revealed by dot blot hybridization. J Clin Microbiol 35:2703–2705
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gentsch J. R., Glass R. I., Woods P., Gouvea V., Gorziglia M., Flores J., Das B. K., Bhan M. K. 1992; Identification of group A rotavirus gene 4 types by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 30:1365–1373
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Gentsch J. R., Woods P. A., Ramachandran M., Das B. K., Leite J. P., Alfieri A., Kumar R., Bhan M. K., Glass R. I. 1996; Review of G and P typing results from a global collection of rotavirus strains: implications for vaccine development. J Infect Dis 174:30–36 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Gentsch J. R., Laird A. R., Bielfelt B., Griffin D. D., Bányai K., Ramachandran M., Jain V., Cunliffe N. A., Nakagomi O. other authors 2005; Serotype diversity and reassortment between human and animal rotavirus strains: implications for rotavirus vaccine programs. J Infect Dis 192:146–159 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gerna G., Sarasini A., di Matteo A., Parea M., Orsolini P., Battaglia M. 1988; Identification of two subtypes of serotype 4 human rotavirus by using VP7-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. J Clin Microbiol 26:1388–1392
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gouvea V., Santos N. 1999; Rotavirus serotype G5: an emerging cause of epidemic childhood diarrhea. Vaccine 17:1291–1292 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Green K. Y., Sarasini A., Qian Y., Gerna G. 1992; Genetic variation in rotavirus serotype 4 subtypes. Virology 188:362–368 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Greenberg H., McAuliffe V., Valdesuso J., Wyatt R., Flores J., Kalica A., Hoshino Y., Singh N. 1983; Serological analysis of the subgroup protein of rotavirus, using monoclonal antibodies. Infect Immun 39:91–99
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Horie Y., Masamune O., Nakagomi O. 1997; Three major alleles of rotavirus NSP4 proteins identified by sequence analysis. J Gen Virol 78:2341–2346
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Iturriza-Gómara M., Wong C., Blome S., Desselberger U., Gray J. 2002; Molecular characterization of VP6 genes of human rotavirus isolates: correlation of genogroups with subgroups and evidence of independent segregation. J Virol 76:6596–6601 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Iturriza-Gómara M., Anderton E., Kang G., Gallimore C., Phillips W., Desselberger U., Gray J. 2003; Evidence for genetic linkage between the gene segments encoding NSP4 and VP6 proteins in common and reassortant human rotavirus strains. J Clin Microbiol 41:3566–3573 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Jain V., Das B. K., Bhan M. K., Glass R. I., Gentsch J. R. the Indian Strain Surveillance Collaborating Laboratories 2001; Great diversity of group A rotavirus strains and high prevalence of mixed rotavirus infections in India. J Clin Microbiol 39:3524–3529 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Jin Q., Ward R. L., Knowlton D. R., Gabbay Y. B., Linhares A. C., Rappaport R., Woods P. A., Glass R. I., Gentsch J. R. 1996; Divergence of VP7 genes of G1 rotaviruses isolated from infants vaccinated with reassortant rhesus rotaviruses. Arch Virol 141:2057–2076 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kapikian A. Z., Hoshino Y., Chanock R. M. 2001; Rotaviruses. In Fields Virology , 4th edn. pp  1787–1833 Edited by Knipe D. M., Howley P. M. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kimura M. 1980; A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitution through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol 16:111–120 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kirkwood C. D., Palombo E. A. 1997; Genetic characterization of the rotavirus nonstructural protein, NSP4. Virology 236:258–265 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Leite J. P. G., Alfieri A. A., Woods P. A., Glass R. I., Gentsch J. R. 1996; Rotavirus G and P types circulating in Brazil: characterization by RT-PCR, probe hybridization, and sequence analysis. Arch Virol 141:2365–2374 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Linhares A. C., Gabbay Y. B., Mascarenhas J. D. P., De Freitas R. B., Oliveira C. S., Bellesi N., Monteiro T. A. F., Lins-Lainson Z., Ramos F. L. P., Valente S. A. 1996; Immunogenicity, safety and efficacy of rhesus-human, reassortant rotavirus vaccine in Belém, Brazil. Bull World Health Organ 74:491–500
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Linhares A. C., Mascarenhas J. D. P., Gusmão R. H. P., Gabbay Y. B., Fialho A. M., Leite J. P. G. 2002; Neonatal rotavirus infection in Belém, northern Brazil: nosocomial transmission of a P[6]G2 strain. J Med Virol 67:418–426 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Martella V., Banyai K., Ciarlet M., Iturriza-Gómara M., Lorusso E., De Grazia S., Arista S., Decaro N., Elia G. other authors 2006; Relationships among porcine and human P[6] rotaviruses: evidence that the different human P[6] lineages have originated from multiple interspecies transmission events. Virology 344:509–519 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Mascarenhas J. D., Gusmao R. H., Gabbay Y. B., Monteiro T. A., Gomes J. B., Linhares A. C. 1996; Concomitant rotavirus serotypes 1 and 4 infections in a diarrhoeic child from Belem. Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 38:249–252 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Mascarenhas J. D. P., Linhares A. C., Gabbay Y. B., Leite J. P. G. 2002; Detection and characterization of rotavirus G and P types from children participating in a rotavirus vaccine trial in Belém. Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97:113–117
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Mascarenhas J. D. P., Linhares A. C., Bayma A. P. G., Lima J. C., Sousa M. S., Araújo I. T., Heinemann M. B., Gusmão R. H. P., Gabbay Y. B., Leite J. P. G. 2006; Molecular analysis of VP4, VP7 and NSP4 genes of P[6]G2 rotavirus genotype strains recovered from hospitalised neonates in Belém. Brazil. J Med Virol 78:281–289 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Matthijnssens J., Rahman M., Martella V., Xuelei Y., De Vos S., De Lenner K., Ciarlet M., Buonavoglia C., Van Ranst M. 2006; Full genomic analysis of human rotavirus strain B4106 and lapine rotavirus strain 30/96 provides evidence for interspecies transmission. J Virol 80:3801–3810 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. O'Mahony J., Foley B., Morgan S., Morgan J. G., Hill C. 1999; VP4 and VP7 genotyping of rotavirus samples recovered from infected children in Ireland over a 3-year period. J Clin Microbiol 37:1699–1703
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Pager C. T., Alexander J. J., Steele A. D. 2000; South African G4P[6] asymptomatic and symptomatic neonatal rotavirus strains differ in their NSP4, VP8*, and VP7 genes. J Med Virol 62:208–216 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Parashar U. D., Gibson C. J., Bresee J. S., Glass R. I. 2006; Rotavirus and severe childhood diarrhea. Emerg Infect Dis 12:304–306 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Pereira H. G., Azeredo R. S., Leite J. P., Barth O. M., Sutmoller F., De Farias V., Vidal M. N. 1983; Comparison of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection in children. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 78:483–490 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Rahman M., Sultana R., Podder G., Faruque A. S., Matthijnssens J., Zaman K., Breiman R. F., Sack D. A., Van Ranst M., Azim T. 2005; Typing of human rotaviruses: nucleotide mismatches between the VP7 gene and primer are associated with genotyping failure. Virol J 24:2–24
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Ramachandran M., Das B. K., Vij A., Kumar R., Bhambal S. S., Kesari N., Rawat H., Bahl L., Thakur S. other authors 1996; Unusual diversity of human rotavirus G and P genotypes in India. J Clin Microbiol 34:436–439
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Ramig R. F. 1997; Genetics of the rotaviruses. Annu Rev Microbiol 51:225–255 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Rao C. D., Das M., Ilango P., Lalwani R., Rao B. S., Gowda K. 1995; Comparative nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis of the sequence-specific RNA-binding rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP3. Virology 207:327–333 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Rawdan S. F., Gabr M. K., El-Maraghi S., El-Saifi A. F. 1997; Serotyping of group A rotaviruses in Egyptian neonates and infants less than 1 year old with acute diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol 35:2996–2998
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Santos N., Hoshino Y. 2005; Global distribution of rotavirus serotypes/genotypes and its implication for the development and implementation of an effective rotavirus vaccine. Rev Med Virol 15:29–56 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Santos N., Lima R. C., Nozawa C. M., Linhares R. E., Gouvea V. 1999; Detection of porcine rotavirus type G9 and of a mixture of types G1 and G5 associated with Wa-like VP4 specificity: evidence for natural human-porcine genetic reassortment. J Clin Microbiol 37:2734–2736
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Santos N., Volotao E. M., Soares C. C., Campos G. S., Sardi S. I., Hoshino Y. 2005; Predominance of rotavirus genotype G9 during the 1999, 2000, and 2002 seasons among hospitalized children in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil: implications for future vaccine strategies. J Clin Microbiol 43:4064–4069 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Steele A. D., Ivanoff B. 2003; Rotavirus strains circulating in Africa during 1996–1999: emergence of G9 strains and P[6] strains. Vaccine 17:361–367
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Steele A. D., van Niekerk M. C., Mphalele M. J. 1995; Geographic distribution of human rotavirus VP4 genotypes and VP7 serotypes in five South African regions. J Clin Microbiol 33:1516–1519
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Taniguchi K., Urasawa T., Morita Y., Greenberg H. B., Urasawa S. 1987; Direct serotyping of human rotavirus in stools by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using serotype 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-specific monoclonal antibodies to VP7. J Infect Dis 155:1159–1166 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Tian P., Estes M. K., Hu Y., Ball J. M., Zeng C. Q.-Y., Schilling W. P. 1995; The rotavirus nonstructural glycoprotein NSP4 mobilizes Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum. J Virol 69:5763–5772
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Timenetsky M. D. C., Santos N., Gouvea V. 1994; Survey of rotavirus G and P types associated with human gastroenteritis in São Paulo. Brazil: from 1986 to 1992 J Clin Microbiol 32:2622–2624
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Timenetsky Mdo. C., Gouvea V., Santos N., Carmona C. R., Hoshino Y. 1997; A novel human rotavirus serotype with dual G5-G11 specificity. J Gen Virol 78:1373–1378
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Varghese V., Das S., Singh N. G. B., Kojima K., Bhattacharya S. K., Krishnan T., Kobayashi N., Naik T. N. 2004; Molecular characterization of a human rotavirus reveals porcine characteristics in most of the genes including VP6 and NSP4. Arch Virol 149:155–172
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Volotão E. M., Soares C. C., Maranhão A. G., Rocha L. N., Hoshino Y., Santos N. 2006; Rotavirus surveillance in the city of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil during 2000–2004: detection of unusual strains with G8P[4] or G10P[9] specificities. J Med Virol 78:263–272 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46635-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.46635-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error