1887

Abstract

Resistance to β-lactams among Gram-negative bacteria is a worldwide issue. Increased prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producers and the dissemination of carbapenem-resistance genes are particularly concerning. ESBL-producing strains are common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, particularly among the , and carbapenem resistance is on the increase, especially among the non-fermenters. β-lactamase production is a major mechanism of resistance to these agents and although β-lactamase-producing strains have been documented in the Kingdom, relatively few reports characterized the molecular basis of this production. Nevertheless, available data suggest that CTX-M (CTX-M-15 in particular) is the predominant ESBL in the , with SHV also being prevalent in . Carbapenem resistance in the latter is mainly due to OXA-48 and NDM-1. In , VEB-like enzymes are the most common ESBLs, and VIM is the prevalent metallo-β-lactamase. OXA-10 extended-spectrum enzymes are also frequent. PER and GES ESBLs have been reported in , and oxacillinases (OXA-23 in particular) are the dominant carbapanamases in this species.

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2015-02-01
2019-10-14
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