1887

Abstract

A model was developed in dogs to determine the impact of oral enrofloxacin administration on the indigenous coliform population in the gastrointestinal tract and subsequent disposition to colonization by a strain of multidrug-resistant (MDREC). Dogs given a daily oral dose of 5 mg enrofloxacin kg for 21 consecutive days showed a significant decline in faecal coliforms to levels below detectable limits by 72 h of administration. Subsequently, faecal coliforms remained suppressed throughout the period of enrofloxacin dosing. Upon termination of antibiotic administration, the number of excreted faecal coliforms slowly returned over an 8-day period, to levels comparable to those seen prior to antibiotic treatment. Enrofloxacin-treated dogs were more effectively colonized by MDREC, evidenced by a significantly increased count of MDREC in the faeces (7.1 ± 1.5 log g) compared with non-antibiotic-treated dogs (5.2 ± 1.2; = 0.003). Furthermore, antibiotic treatment also sustained a significantly longer period of MDREC excretion in the faeces (26.8 ± 10.5 days) compared with animals not treated with enrofloxacin (8.5 ± 5.4 days; = 0.0215). These results confirm the importance of sustained delivery of an antimicrobial agent to maintain and expand the colonization potential of drug-resistant bacteria , achieved in part by reducing the competing commensal coliforms in the gastrointestinal tract to below detectable levels in the faeces. Without antimicrobial selection pressure, commensal coliforms dominated the gastrointestinal tract at the expense of the MDREC population. Conceivably, the model developed could be used to test the efficacy of novel non-antibiotic strategies aimed at monitoring and controlling gastrointestinal colonization by multidrug-resistant members of the that cause nosocomial infections.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05473-0
2004-05-01
2019-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/53/5/JM530514.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05473-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bloch, N., Sidjabat-Tambunan, H., Tratt, T., Bensink, J., Lea, K. & Frost, A. J. ( 1996;). The enumeration of coliforms and E.coli on naturally contaminated beef: a comparison of the PetrifilmTM method with the Australian standard. Meat Sci 43, 187–193.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Boerlin, P., Eugster, S., Gaschen, F., Straub, R. & Schawalder, P. ( 2001;). Transmission of opportunistic pathogens in a veterinary teaching hospital. Vet Microbiol 82, 347–359.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Cooke, C. L., Singer, R. S., Jang, S. S. & Hirsh, D. C. ( 2002;). Enrofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from dogs with urinary tract infections. J Am Vet Med Assoc 220, 190–192.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Edlund, C. & Nord, C. E. ( 1999;). Effect of quinolones on intestinal ecology. Drugs 58 (Suppl. 2), 65–70.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Edlund, C. & Nord, C. E. ( 2000;). Effect on the human normal microflora of oral antibiotics for treatment of urinary tract infections. J Antimicrob Chemother 46 (Suppl. 1), 41–48.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Féria, C., Ferreira, E., Correia, J. D., Goncalves, J. & Canica, M. ( 2002;). Patterns and mechanisms of resistance to β-lactams and β-lactamase inhibitors in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from dogs in Portugal. J Antimicrob Chemother 49, 77–85.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Garau, J., Xercavins, M., Rodríguez-Carballeira, M., Gómez-Vera, J. R., Coll, I., Vidal, D., Llovet, T. & Ruíz-Bremón, A. ( 1999;). Emergence and dissemination of quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in the community. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43, 2736–2741.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Hanson, N. D., Moland, E. S., Hossain, A., Neville, S. A., Gosbell, I. B. & Thomson, K. S. ( 2002;). Unusual Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolate producing CMY-7, SHV-9 and OXA-30 β-lactamases. J Antimicrob Chemother 49, 1011–1014.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Johnson, J. R., Stell, A. L. & Delavari, P. ( 2001;). Canine feces as a reservoir of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 69, 1306–1314.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. NCCLS ( 1998;). Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility tests for bacteria isolated from animals. Proposed standard. NCCLS document M31-A. Villanova, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards.
  11. Prescott, J. F., Hanna, W. J. B., Reld-Smith, R. & Drost, K. ( 2002;). Antimicrobial drug use and resistance in dogs. Can Vet J 43, 107–116.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Reeves, D. S. ( 1986;). The effect of quinolone antibacterials on the gastrointestinal flora compared with that of other antibacterials. J Antimicrob Chemother 18 (Suppl. D), 89–102.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Richard, P., Delangle, M. H., Raffi, F., Espaze, E. & Richet, H. ( 2001;). Impact of fluoroquinolone administration on the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli from gastrointestinal flora. Clin Infect Dis 32, 162–166.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Rupp, M. E. & Fey, P. D. ( 2003;). Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae: considerations for diagnosis, prevention and drug treatment. Drugs 63, 353–365.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Sakata, H., Fujita, K. & Yoshioka, H. ( 1986;). The effect of antimicrobial agents on fecal flora of children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 29, 225–229.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Sanchez, S., McCrackin Stevenson, M. A., Hudson, C. R., Maier, M., Buffington, T., Dam, Q. & Maurer, J. J. ( 2002;). Characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates associated with nosocomial infections in dogs. J Clin Microbiol 40, 3586–3595.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Teshager, T., Dominguez, L., Morenzo, M. A., Saénz, Y., Torres, C. & Cardenosa, S. ( 2000;). Isolation of an SHV-12 β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strain from a dog with recurrent urinary tract infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44, 3483–3484.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Townsend, K., Stokes, H., Moss, S. & Trott, D. ( 2002;). Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli in a veterinary teaching hospital: mechanisms of resistance. In Abstracts of the 102nd General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, p. A-2613. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  19. van der Waaij, D. & Nord, C. E. ( 2000;). Development and persistence of multi-resistance to antibiotics in bacteria; an analysis and a new approach to this urgent problem. Int J Antimicrob Agents 16, 191–197.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Warren, A., Townsend, K., King, T., Moss, S., O'Boyle, D., Yates, R. & Trott, D. J. ( 2001;). Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli with extended-spectrum β-lactamase activity and fluoroquinolone resistance isolated from clinical infections in dogs. Aust Vet J 79, 621–623.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05473-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05473-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error