1887

Abstract

Leptospirosis is recognized as an emerging zoonotic disease generally affecting urban slums in developing countries and tropical regions. A combination of non-specific symptoms, low awareness among the medical community and a lack of readily available diagnostic tests have made leptospirosis an underdiagnosed disease. In this study, we tested an in-house ELISA with formalin-treated and boiled bacteria from the intermediate species as an antigen to detect -specific IgM antibodies. A total of 819 serum samples, tested by a microscopic agglutination test (MAT) as a reference test, were used to evaluate the ELISA. Compared with positive and negative sera, the ELISA showed 94 % sensitivity and 99 % specificity. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were 94 and 0.06, respectively. No cross-reactivity was observed in sera from subjects with dengue and syphilis infections. The kappa value was 0.92 (95 % confidence interval 0.88–0.96), which indicated excellent agreement between the MAT and ELISA. The overall performance of this in-house ELISA suggests applicability as a rapid screening test for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in resource-limited settings and in hospitals and laboratories where a MAT is not available.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.054304-0
2013-06-01
2019-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/62/6/822.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.054304-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abela-Ridder B. , Sikkema R. , Hartskeerl R. A. . ( 2010; ). Estimating the burden of human leptospirosis. . Int J Antimicrob Agents 36: (Suppl. 1), S5–S7. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Arzouni J. P. , Parola P. , La Scola B. , Postic D. , Brouqui P. , Raoult D. . ( 2002; ). Human infection caused by Leptospira fainei . . Emerg Infect Dis 8:, 865–868. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aviat F. , Rochereau-Roulet S. , Branger C. , Estavoyer J. M. , Chatrenet B. , Orsonneau J. L. , Thorin C. , Andre-Fontaine G. . ( 2010; ). Synthetic peptide issued from Hap1/LipL32 for new early serodiagnosis of human leptospirosis. . Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 33:, 375–387. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bajani M. D. , Ashford D. A. , Bragg S. L. , Woods C. W. , Aye T. , Spiegel R. A. , Plikaytis B. D. , Perkins B. A. , Phelan M. . & other authors ( 2003; ). Evaluation of four commercially available rapid serologic tests for diagnosis of leptospirosis. . J Clin Microbiol 41:, 803–809. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bourhy P. , Nato F. , Chanteau S. , Goarant C. , Dartevelle S. , Picardeau M. . ( 2012; ). Utilisation de la souche Leptospira fainei serovar Hurstbridge comme antigène pour le dépistage des leptospiroses . . European Patent Application. I. Pasteur. DI2011-47 NT.
  6. Brandão A. P. , Camargo E. D. , da Silva E. D. , Silva M. V. , Abrão R. V. . ( 1998; ). Macroscopic agglutination test for rapid diagnosis of human leptospirosis. . J Clin Microbiol 36:, 3138–3142.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cerqueira G. M. , Picardeau M. . ( 2009; ). A century of Leptospira strain typing. . Infect Genet Evol 9:, 760–768. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chappel R. J. , Khalik D. A. , Adler B. , Bulach D. M. , Faine S. , Perolat P. , Vallance V. . ( 1998; ). Serological titres to Leptospira fainei serovar Hurstbridge in human sera in Australia. . Epidemiol Infect 121:, 473–475. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chappel R. J. , Goris M. , Palmer M. F. , Hartskeerl R. A. . ( 2004; ). Impact of proficiency testing on results of the microscopic agglutination test for diagnosis of leptospirosis. . J Clin Microbiol 42:, 5484–5488. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chirathaworn C. , Kaewopas Y. , Poovorawan Y. , Suwancharoen D. . ( 2007; ). Comparison of a slide agglutination test, LeptoTek Dri-Dot, and IgM-ELISA with microscopic agglutination test for Leptospira antibody detection. . Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 38:, 1111–1114.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cumberland P. , Everard C. O. , Levett P. N. . ( 1999; ). Assessment of the efficacy of an IgM-ELISA and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) in the diagnosis of acute leptospirosis. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 61:, 731–734.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Doungchawee G. , Kositanont U. , Niwetpathomwat A. , Inwisai T. , Sagarasaeranee P. , Haake D. A. . ( 2008; ). Early diagnosis of leptospirosis by immunoglobulin M immunoblot testing. . Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:, 492–498. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Ellinghausen H. C. Jr , McCullough W. G. . ( 1965; ). Nutrition of Leptospira pomona and growth of 13 other serotypes: fractionation of oleic albumin complex and a medium of bovine albumin and polysorbate 80. . Am J Vet Res 26:, 45–51.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ganoza C. A. , Matthias M. A. , Collins-Richards D. , Brouwer K. C. , Cunningham C. B. , Segura E. R. , Gilman R. H. , Gotuzzo E. , Vinetz J. M. . ( 2006; ). Determining risk for severe leptospirosis by molecular analysis of environmental surface waters for pathogenic Leptospira . . PLoS Med 3:, e308. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Johnson R. C. , Harris V. G. . ( 1967; ). Differentiation of pathogenic and saprophytic leptospires. I. Growth at low temperatures. . J Bacteriol 94:, 27–31.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Landis J. R. , Koch G. G. . ( 1977; ). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. . Biometrics 33:, 159–174. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lau C. L. , Smythe L. D. , Craig S. B. , Weinstein P. . ( 2010; ). Climate change, flooding, urbanisation and leptospirosis: fuelling the fire?. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 104:, 631–638. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Levett P. N. . ( 2001; ). Leptospirosis. . Clin Microbiol Rev 14:, 296–326. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Levett P. N. , Branch S. L. , Whittington C. U. , Edwards C. N. , Paxton H. . ( 2001; ). Two methods for rapid serological diagnosis of acute leptospirosis. . Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8:, 349–351.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Limmathurotsakul D. , Turner E. L. , Wuthiekanun V. , Thaipadungpanit J. , Suputtamongkol Y. , Chierakul W. , Smythe L. D. , Day N. P. J. , Cooper B. , Peacock S. J. . ( 2012; ). Fool’s gold: why imperfect reference tests are undermining the evaluation of novel diagnostics: a reevaluation of 5 diagnostic tests for leptospirosis. . Clin Infect Dis 55:, 322–331. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Matthias M. A. , Díaz M. M. , Campos K. J. , Calderon M. , Willig M. R. , Pacheco V. , Gotuzzo E. , Gilman R. H. , Vinetz J. M. . ( 2005; ). Diversity of bat-associated Leptospira in the Peruvian Amazon inferred by Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequences. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:, 964–974.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. McBride A. J. , Athanazio D. A. , Reis M. G. , Ko A. I. . ( 2005; ). Leptospirosis. . Curr Opin Infect Dis 18:, 376–386. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Perolat P. , Chappel R. J. , Adler B. , Baranton G. , Bulach D. M. , Billinghurst M. L. , Letocart M. , Merien F. , Serrano M. S. . ( 1998; ). Leptospira fainei sp. nov., isolated from pigs in Australia. . Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:, 851–858. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Petersen A. M. , Boye K. , Blom J. , Schlichting P. , Krogfelt K. A. . ( 2001; ). First isolation of Leptospira fainei serovar Hurstbridge from two human patients with Weil’s syndrome. . J Med Microbiol 50:, 96–100.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Postic D. , Mérien F. , Perolat P. , Baranton G. . ( 2000; ). Diagnostic Biologique Leptospirose-Borréliose de Lyme. Paris:: Institut Pasteur;.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Signorini M. L. , Lottersberger J. , Tarabla H. D. , Vanasco N. B. . ( 2012; ). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to diagnose human leptospirosis: a meta-analysis of the published literature. . Epidemiol Infect 141:, 22–12.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Silva M. V. , Camargo E. D. , Batista L. , Vaz A. J. , Brandão A. P. , Nakamura P. M. , Negrão J. M. . ( 1995; ). Behaviour of specific IgM, IgG and IgA class antibodies in human leptospirosis during the acute phase of the disease and during convalescence. . J Trop Med Hyg 98:, 268–272.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Winslow W. E. , Merry D. J. , Pirc M. L. , Devine P. L. . ( 1997; ). Evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin M antibody in diagnosis of human leptospiral infection. . J Clin Microbiol 35:, 1938–1942.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Yersin C. , Bovet P. , Mérien F. , Wong T. , Panowsky J. , Perolat P. . ( 1998; ). Human leptospirosis in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean): a population-based study. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 59:, 933–940.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.054304-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.054304-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error