1887

Abstract

Multidrug efflux pumps, such as CmeABC and CmeDEF, are involved in the resistance of to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of two putative efflux-pump inducers, bile salts and sodium deoxycholate, on the resistance of to biocides (triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate, cetylpyridinium chloride and trisodium phosphate), SDS and erythromycin. The involvement of the CmeABC and CmeDEF efflux pumps in this resistance was studied on the basis of the effects of bile salts and sodium deoxycholate in , and mutants. The genetic variation in the gene was also examined, to see whether this polymorphism is related to the function of the efflux pump. In 15 and 23 strains, bile salts and sodium deoxycholate increased the MICs of benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate, cetylpyridinium chloride and SDS, and decreased the MICs of triclosan, trisodium phosphate and erythromycin. Bile salts and sodium deoxycholate further decreased or increased the MICs of biocides and erythromycin in the and mutants. For polymorphisms, 17 different specific PCR-RFLP patterns were identified: six within only, nine within only and two in both species. In conclusion, bile salts and sodium deoxycholate can increase or decrease bacterial resistance to structurally unrelated antimicrobials. The MIC increases in the and mutants indicated that at least one non-CmeABC efflux system is involved in resistance to biocides. These results indicate that the gene polymorphism identified is not associated with biocide and erythromycin resistance in .

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2013-03-01
2019-12-06
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