1887

Abstract

The complex (MAC), an intracellular pathogen of cells of the macrophage lineage, often clinically coexists with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). It was shown previously that coinfection of the monocytoid cell line U937 with HIV and MAC results in the enhancement of HIV replication. To determine whether MAC-mediated HIV upregulation is due to the exposure of intact organisms to HIV-infected cells or if actual infection with viable organisms is required for the effect, U937 cells were coinfected simultaneously with HIV and live or heat-killed MAC. Live MAC (infection) consistently increased HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) activity by more than 3-fold. Heat-killed MAC, however, failed to enhance RT activity significantly. Further investigation showed that infection of U38 cells [a U937-derived cell line containing regions of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) linked to chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT)] with live or heat-killed MAC resulted in a similar enhancement of HIV LTR-CAT transcription. In addition, transient transfection of U937 cells with a full-length wild-type HIV LTR-CAT construct revealed that heat-killed MAC stimulated LTR-mediated CAT activity to levels comparable to those of viable MAC. Finally, both live and heat-killed MAC mediated similar enhancement of NF-κB DNA-binding activity. Taken together, these observations confirm previous findings that MAC-induced NF-κB-dependent LTR-CAT activity is not a major factor in upregulating HIV expression in a coinfection model. It also indicates that MAC infection plays a significant role in the enhancement of HIV replication and suggests that viable MAC either contains or induces the production of an as-yet-unidentified factor(s) that mediates the enhancement of HIV replication.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05231-0
2003-10-01
2020-09-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/52/10/jm521005.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05231-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Andreana A, Gollapudi S, Kim C. H, Gupta S. 1994; Salmonella typhimurium activates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in chronically infected promonocytic cells by inducing tumor necrosis factor-α production. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 201:16–23 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Barker L. P, George K. M, Falkow S, Small P. L. 1997; Differential trafficking of live and dead Mycobacterium marinum organisms in macrophages. Infect Immun 65:1497–1504
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Benson C. 1994; Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in patients with AIDS. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 10:913–916 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Castro A. G, Esaguy N, Macedo P. M, Aguas A. P, Silva M. T. 1991; Live but not heat-killed mycobacteria cause rapid chemotaxis of large numbers of eosinophils in vivo and are ingested by the attracted granulocytes. Infect Immun 59:3009–3014
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chin D. P, Reingold A. L, Horsburgh C. R. Jr & 8 other authors; 1994; Predicting Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a prospectively validated model. Clin Infect Dis 19:668–674 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Denis M, Ghadirian E. 1994; Interaction between Mycobacterium avium and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in bronchoalveolar macrophages of normal and HIV-1-infected subjects. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 11:487–495 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dezzutti C. S, Swords W. E, Guenthner P. C. 7 other authors 1999; Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced replication by clinical Mycobacterium avium isolates. J Infect Dis 180:1142–1152 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Felber B. K, Pavlakis G. N. 1988; A quantitative bioassay for HIV-1 based on trans -activation. Science 239:184–187 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Folks T. M, Justement J, Kinter A, Dinarello C. A, Fauci A. S. 1987; Cytokine-induced expression of HIV-1 in a chronically infected promonocyte cell line. Science 238:800–802 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Folks T. M, Justement J, Kinter A, Schnittman S, Orenstein J, Poli G, Fauci A. S. 1988; Characterization of a promonocyte clone chronically infected with HIV and inducible by 13-phorbol-12- myristate acetate. J Immunol 140:1117–1122
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fraziano M, Cappelli G, Santucci M, Mariani F, Amicosante M, Casarini M, Giosue S, Bisetti A, Colizzi V. 1999; Expression of CCR5 is increased in human monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages in the course of in vivo and in vitro Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 15:869–874 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Ghassemi M, Andersen B. R, Reddy V. M, Gangadharam P. R, Spear G. T, Novak R. M. 1995; Human immunodeficiency virus and Mycobacterium avium complex coinfection of monocytoid cells results in reciprocal enhancement of multiplication. J Infect Dis 171:68–73 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Ghassemi M, Andersen B. R, Roebuck K. A, Rabbi M. F, Plate J. M, Novak R. M. 1999; Mycobacterium avium complex activates nuclear factor κB via induction of inflammatory cytokines. Cell Immunol 191:117–123 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ghassemi M, Asadi F. K, Andersen B. R, Novak R. M. 2000; Mycobacterium avium induces HIV upregulation through mechanisms independent of cytokine induction. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 16:435–440 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Goletti D, Weissman D, Jackson R. W. 7 other authors 1996; Effect of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on HIV replication.Role of immune activation. J Immunol 157:1271–1278
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Goletti D, Weissman D, Jackson R. W, Collins F, Kinter A, Fauci A. S. 1998; The in vitro induction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in purified protein derivative-positive HIV-infected persons by recall antigen response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the result of a balance of the effects of endogenous interleukin-2 and proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines. J Infect Dis 177:1332–1338 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Horsburgh C. R Jr, Metchock B, Gordon S. M, Havlik J. A Jr, McGowan J. E Jr, Thompson S. E. III: 1994; Predictors of survival in patients with AIDS and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease. J Infect Dis 170:573–577 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Lederman M. M, Georges D. L, Kusner D. J, Mudido P, Giam C. Z, Toossi Z. 1994; Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its purified protein derivative activate expression of the human immunodeficiency virus. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 7:727–733
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lee M. H, Sano K, Morales F. E, Imagawa D. T. 1987; Sensitive reverse transcriptase assay to detect and quantitate human immunodeficiency virus. J Clin Microbiol 25:1717–1721
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Lovik M, Closs O. 1984; Induction of immunity against live Mycobacterium lepraemurium : a requirement for viable bacilli?. Immunology 53:165–173
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mancino G, Placido R, Bach S, Mariani F, Montesano C, Ercoli L, Zembala M, Colizzi V. 1997; Infection of human monocytes with Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication and transmission to T cells. J Infect Dis 175:1531–1535 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nabel G, Baltimore D. 1987; An inducible transcription factor activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus in T cells. Nature 326:711–713 erratum 344:178
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Orenstein J. M, Fox C, Wahl S. M. 1997; Macrophages as a source of HIV during opportunistic infections. Science 276:1857–1861 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Schreiber E, Matthias P, Muller M. M, Schaffner W. 1989; Rapid detection of octamer binding proteins with ‘mini-extracts', prepared from a small number of cells. Nucleic Acids Res 17:6419– 6419 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Seed B, Sheen J. Y. 1988; A simple phase-extraction assay for chloramphenicol acyltransferase activity. Gene 67:271–277 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Shattock R. J, Friedland J. S, Griffin G. E. 1993; Modulation of HIV transcription in and release from human monocytic cells following phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Res Virol 144:7–12 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Shattock R. J, Friedland J. S, Griffin G. E. 1994; Phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates human immunodeficiency virus replication in human monocytic cells. J Gen Virol 75:849–856 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Spenlehauer C, Gordon C. A, Trkola A, Moore J. P. 2001; A luciferase-reporter gene-expressing T-cell line facilitates neutralization and drug-sensitivity assays that use either R5 or X4 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Virology 280:292–300 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Vanham G, Edmonds K, Qing L. 8 other authors 1996; Generalized immune activation in pulmonary tuberculosis: co-activation with HIV infection. Clin Exp Immunol 103:30–34 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Wahl S. M, Greenwell-Wild T, Peng G, Hale-Donze H, Doherty T. M, Mizel D, Orenstein J. M. 1998; Mycobacterium avium complex augments macrophage HIV-1 production and increases CCR5 expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:12574–12579 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Wahl S. M, Greenwell-Wild T, Peng G, Hale-Donze H, Orenstein J. M. 1999; Co-infection with opportunistic pathogens promotes human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in macrophages. J Infect Dis 179:Suppl. 3S457–S460 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Wahl S. M, Greenwell-Wild T, Hale-Donze H, Moutsopoulos N, Orenstein J. M. 2000; Permissive factors for HIV-1 infection of macrophages. J Leukoc Biol 68:303–310
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Zhang Y, Nakata K, Weiden M, Rom W. N. 1995; Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhances human immunodeficiency virus-1 replication by transcriptional activation at the long terminal repeat. J Clin Invest 95:2324–2331 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05231-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05231-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error