1887

Abstract

Tetracycline resistance is one of the most frequently encountered resistance properties in bacteria of animal origin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and diversity of tetracycline resistance () genes among clinical isolates from diseased ducks in China and to report the identification and sequencing of the (M) gene. The susceptibility of 85 strains to tetracyclines was determined by broth microdilution, and the presence of genes was investigated by multiplex PCR. All of the 85 isolates were fully resistant to both oxytetracycline and tetracycline, and 76.5 % were resistant to doxycycline. Seventy-seven of the isolates (90.6 %) encoded multiple genes, with 17.6, 38.8 and 34.1 % encoding two, three and four genes, respectively, and only 7.1 % encoded a single (A) gene. The MICs of oxytetracycline and tetracycline for all isolates ranged from 16 to ≥128 µg ml with a MIC of >128 µg ml, regardless of the type or number of genes encoded. Isolates containing (M) commonly had more than one gene per strain. The doxycycline resistance rate in the (M)-positive isolates was significantly higher than in the tet(M)-negative isolates (<0.05). A full-length (M) gene, including the promoter region, was obtained by PCR in seven of the 41 (M)-positive isolates and was sequenced and cloned. The cloned (M) gene conferred resistance to tetracyclines in the recombinant host strain. These results revealed that, in these isolates, the prevalence of multiple genes was strikingly high and that (M) played a role in doxycycline resistance.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.051896-0
2013-06-01
2019-10-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/62/6/851.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.051896-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Agersø Y. , Jensen L. B. , Givskov M. , Roberts M. C. . ( 2002; ). The identification of a tetracycline resistance gene tet(M), on a Tn916-like transposon, in the Bacillus cereus group. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 214:, 251–256. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Agersø Y. , Pedersen A. G. , Aarestrup F. M. . ( 2006; ). Identification of Tn5397-like and Tn916-like transposons and diversity of the tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) in enterococci from humans, pigs and poultry. . J Antimicrob Chemother 57:, 832–839. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Blake D. P. , Humphry R. W. , Scott K. P. , Hillman K. , Fenlon D. R. , Low J. C. . ( 2003; ). Influence of tetracycline exposure on tetracycline resistance and the carriage of tetracycline resistance genes within commensal Escherichia coli populations. . J Appl Microbiol 94:, 1087–1097. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bryan A. , Shapir N. , Sadowsky M. J. . ( 2004; ). Frequency and distribution of tetracycline resistance genes in genetically diverse, nonselected, and nonclinical Escherichia coli strains isolated from diverse human and animal sources. . Appl Environ Microbiol 70:, 2503–2507. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chopra I. , Roberts M. . ( 2001; ). Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. . Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 65:, 232–260. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. CLSI. (2009). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; 19th Informational Supplement M100-S16. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
  7. de Vries L. E. , Christensen H. , Skov R. L. , Aarestrup F. M. , Agersø Y. . ( 2009; ). Diversity of the tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) and identification of Tn916- and Tn5801-like (Tn6014) transposons in Staphylococcus aureus from humans and animals. . J Antimicrob Chemother 64:, 490–500. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Jiang H.-X. , D.-H. , Chen Z.-L. , Wang X.-M. , Chen J.-R. , Liu Y.-H. , Liao X.-P. , Liu J.-H. , Zeng Z.-L. . ( 2011; ). High prevalence and widespread distribution of multi-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in pigs and poultry in China. . Vet J 187:, 99–103. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Johnson J. R. , O’Bryan T. T. . ( 2000; ). Improved repetitive-element PCR fingerprinting for resolving pathogenic and nonpathogenic phylogenetic groups within Escherichia coli . . Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 7:, 265–273.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Jones C. S. , Osborne D. J. , Stanley J. . ( 1992; ). Enterobacterial tetracycline resistance in relation to plasmid incompatibility. . Mol Cell Probes 6:, 313–317. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Jones C. H. , Tuckman M. , Murphy E. , Bradford P. A. . ( 2006; ). Identification and sequence of a tet(M) tetracycline resistance determinant homologue in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli . . J Bacteriol 188:, 7151–7164. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Karami N. , Nowrouzian F. , Adlerberth I. , Wold A. E. . ( 2006; ). Tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli and persistence in the infantile colonic microbiota. . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:, 156–161. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Koo H. J. , Woo G. J. . ( 2011; ). Distribution and transferability of tetracycline resistance determinants in Escherichia coli isolated from meat and meat products. . Int J Food Microbiol 145:, 407–413. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lanz R. , Kuhnert P. , Boerlin P. . ( 2003; ). Antimicrobial resistance and resistance gene determinants in clinical Escherichia coli from different animal species in Switzerland. . Vet Microbiol 91:, 73–84. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Li Y. , Li Q. , Du Y. , Jiang X. , Tang J. , Wang J. , Li G. , Jiang Y. . ( 2008; ). Prevalence of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases in a Chinese university hospital from 2003 to 2005: first report of CMY-2-type AmpC β-lactamase resistance in China. . J Clin Microbiol 46:, 1317–1321. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Maynard C. , Bekal S. , Sanschagrin F. , Levesque R. C. , Brousseau R. , Masson L. , Larivière S. , Harel J. . ( 2004; ). Heterogeneity among virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene profiles of extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolates of animal and human origin. . J Clin Microbiol 42:, 5444–5452. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Nawaz M. , Khan A. A. , Khan S. , Sung K. , Kerdahi K. , Steele R. . ( 2009; ). Molecular characterization of tetracycline-resistant genes and integrons from avirulent strains of Escherichia coli isolated from catfish. . Foodborne Pathog Dis 6:, 553–559. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Ng L. K. , Martin I. , Alfa M. , Mulvey M. . ( 2001; ). Multiplex PCR for the detection of tetracycline resistant genes. . Mol Cell Probes 15:, 209–215. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Rasschaert G. , Houf K. , Imberechts H. , Grijspeerdt K. , De Zutter L. , Heyndrickx M. . ( 2005; ). Comparison of five repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing methods for molecular discrimination of Salmonella enterica isolates. . J Clin Microbiol 43:, 3615–3623. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Roberts M. C. . ( 2005; ). Update on acquired tetracycline resistance genes. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 245:, 195–203. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Schwaiger K. , Hölzel C. , Bauer J. . ( 2010; ). Resistance gene patterns of tetracycline resistant Escherichia coli of human and porcine origin. . Vet Microbiol 142:, 329–336. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Sengeløv G. , Halling-Sørensen B. , Aarestrup F. M. . ( 2003; ). Susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs and broiler chickens to tetracycline degradation products and distribution of tetracycline resistance determinants in E. coli from food animals. . Vet Microbiol 95:, 91–101. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Thaker M. , Spanogiannopoulos P. , Wright G. D. . ( 2010; ). The tetracycline resistome. . Cell Mol Life Sci 67:, 419–431. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Tuckman M. , Petersen P. J. , Howe A. Y. M. , Orlowski M. , Mullen S. , Chan K. , Bradford P. A. , Jones C. H. . ( 2007; ). Occurrence of tetracycline resistance genes among Escherichia coli isolates from the phase 3 clinical trials for tigecycline. . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:, 3205–3211. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Versalovic J. , Koeuth T. , Lupski J. R. . ( 1991; ). Distribution of repetitive DNA sequences in eubacteria and application to fingerprinting of bacterial genomes. . Nucleic Acids Res 19:, 6823–6831.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Warburton P. J. , Ciric L. , Lerner A. , Seville L. A. , Roberts A. P. , Mullany P. , Allan E. . ( 2013; ). TetAB(46), a predicted heterodimeric ABC transporter conferring tetracycline resistance in Streptococcus australis isolated from the oral cavity. . J Antimicrob Chemother 68:, 17–22. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Wei-hong L. , Yin-di X. , Ai-zhen G. , Ai-qing J. , Jun-fa L. , Huan-chun C. . ( 2006; ). PCR amplification of tetB gene for pathogenic Salmonella isolated from diseased pigs. . Chin J Antibiot 31:, 51–55.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Wilkerson C. , Samadpour M. , van Kirk N. , Roberts M. C. . ( 2004; ). Antibiotic resistance and distribution of tetracycline resistance genes in Escherichia coli O157 : H7 isolates from humans and bovines. . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:, 1066–1067. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Xu R. , Liu, J. H , Hu G. Z. , Wu H , Chen Y.-X. , Zhao J.-F. , Memg C.-P. . ( 2011; ). Multiplex PCR for detection of three tetracycline resistance genes in E. coli isolated from duck. . Acta Agric Jiangxi 23:, 150–152.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Zhang C.-P , Ning Yi-B , Song Li . . ( 2010; ). Resistance to tetracycline and distribution of tetracycline resistance determinants in commensal Escherichia coli isolated from clinically healthy chickens and Pigs. . Sci Agric Sin 43:, 2578–-2583.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.051896-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.051896-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error