1887

Abstract

All strains of examined have been found to lack an O-antigen. In other members of the , the rough phenotype often results in attenuation. However, is the aetiological agent of bubonic plague. In evolving from the ancestral enteropathogenic , and with the development of an arthropod-vectored systemic pathogenesis, smooth LPS production is not necessary for virulence and the metabolic burden has been alleviated by inactivation of the O-antigen biosynthetic operon. To investigate this, strain KIM D27 was transformed with a plasmid carrying the operon encoding the O-antigen of O : 3. Expression of the O-antigen could be detected in silver-stained gels. The receptor for bacteriophage ϕYeO3-12 has been shown to be O-antigen, and infection by this bacteriophage results in lysis of O : 3. Expression of the O-antigen in conferred sensitivity to lysis by ϕYeO3-12. The O-antigen-expressing clone was shown to be as virulent in mice by the intravenous route of challenge as the rough wild-type. Assays showed no alteration in the ability of to resist lysis by cationic antimicrobial peptides, serum or polymyxin.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05044-0
2003-04-01
2019-10-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/52/4/289.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05044-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Achtman, M., Zurth, K., Morelli, C., Torrea, G., Guiyoule, A. & Carniel, E. ( 1999;). Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a recently emerged clone of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 14043–14048.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. al-Hendy, A., Toivanen, P. & Skurnik, M. ( 1991;). Expression cloning of Yersinia enterocolitica O : 3 rfb gene cluster in Escherichia coli K12. Microb Pathog 10, 47–59.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. al-Hendy, A., Toivanen, P. & Skurnik, M. ( 1992;). Lipopolysaccharide O side chain of Yersinia enterocolitica O : 3 is an essential virulence factor in an orally infected murine model. Infect Immun 60, 870–875.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baker, E. E., Sommer, H., Foster, L. E., Meyer, E. & Meyer, K. F. ( 1952;). Studies on immunization against plague. I. The isolation and characterization of the soluble antigen of Pasteurella pestis. J Immunol 68, 131–145.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bayston, K. F. & Cohen, J. ( 1990;). Bacterial endotoxin and current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of endotoxaemia. J Med Microbiol 31, 73–83.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bengoechea, J.-A., Lindner, B., Seydel, U., Díaz, R. & Moriyón, I. ( 1998;). Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis are more resistant to bactericidal cationic peptides than Yersinia enterocolitica. Microbiology 144, 1509–1515.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bennett, L. G. & Tornabene, T. G. ( 1974;). Characterization of the antigenic subunits of the envelope protein of Yersinia pestis. J Bacteriol 117, 48–55.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bolivar, F., Rodriguez, R. L., Greene, P. J., Betlach, M. C., Heyneker, H. L., Boyer, H. W., Crosa, J. H. & Falkow, S. ( 1977;). Construction and characterization of new cloning vehicles. II. A multipurpose cloning system. Gene 2, 95–113.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Brubaker, R. R. ( 1991;). Factors promoting acute and chronic diseases caused by yersiniae. Clin Microbiol Rev 4, 309–324.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Butler, T., Fu, Y.-S., Furman, L., Almeida, C. & Almeida, A. ( 1982;). Experimental Yersinia pestis infection in rodents after intragastric inoculation and ingestion of bacteria. Infect Immun 36, 1160–1167.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chart, H. (1994). Lipopolysaccharide: isolation and characterization. In Methods in Practical Laboratory Bacteriology, pp. 11–20. Edited by H. Chart. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  12. Christie, A. B., Chen, T. H. & Elberg, S. S. ( 1980;). Plague in camels and goats: their role in human epidemics. J Infect Dis 141, 724–726.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cortes, G., Borrell, N., de Astorza, B., Gomez, C., Sauleda, J. & Alberti, S. ( 2002;). Molecular analysis of the contribution of the capsular polysaccharide and the lipopolysaccharide O side chain to the virulence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in a murine model of pneumonia. Infect Immun 70, 2583–2590.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ellwood, D. C. ( 1968;). The 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid found in the lipopolysaccharide of Pasteurella species. Biochem J 106, 47–48.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Estabrook, M. M., Griffiss, J. M. & Jarvis, G. A. ( 1997;). Sialylation of Neisseria meningitidis lipooligosaccharide inhibits serum bactericidal activity by masking lacto-N-neotetraose. Infect Immun 65, 4436–4444.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Garcia, E., Nedialkov, Y. A., Elliott, J., Motin, V. L. & Brubaker, R. R. (1999). Molecular characterization of KatY (antigen 5), a thermoregulated chromosomally encoded catalase-peroxidase of Yersinia pestis. J Bacteriol 181, 3114–3122.
  17. Groisman, E. A. ( 1994;). How bacteria resist killing by host-defense peptides. Trends Microbiol 2, 444–449.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hartley, J. L., Adams, G. A. & Tornabene, T. G. ( 1974;). Chemical and physical properties of lipopolysaccharide of Yersinia pestis. J Bacteriol 118, 848–854.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hitchen, P. G., Prior, J. L., Oyston, P. C. F., Panico, M., Wren, B. W., Titball, R. W., Morris, H. R. & Dell, A. ( 2002;). Structural characterization of lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) from Yersinia pestis: regulation of LOS structure by the PhoPQ system. Mol Microbiol 44, 1637–1650.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Joiner, K. A., Warren, K. A., Brown, E. J., Swanson, J. & Frank, M. M. ( 1983;). Studies on the mechanism of bacterial resistance to complement-mediated killing. IV. C5b-9 forms high molecular weight complexes with bacterial outer membrane constituents on serum-resistant but not on serum-sensitive Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Immunol 131, 1443–1451.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Karlyshev, A. V., Oyston, P. C. F., Williams, K., Clark, G. C., Titball, R. W., Winzeler, E. A. & Wren, B. W. ( 2001;). Application of high-density array-based signature-tagged mutagenesis to discover novel Yersinia virulence-associated genes. Infect Immun 69, 7810–7819.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Laemmli, U. K. ( 1970;). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680–685.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Makela, P. H., Hovi, M., Saxen, H., Valtonen, M. & Valtonen, V. ( 1988;). Salmonella, complement and mouse macrophages. Immunol Lett 19, 217–222.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Mandrell, R. E., McLaughlin, R., Aba Kwaik, Y., Lesse, A., Yamasaki, R., Gibson, B., Spinola, S. M. & Apicella, M. A. ( 1992;). Lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of some Haemophilus species mimic human glycosphingolipids, and some LOS are sialylated. Infect Immun 60, 1322–1328.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. McDonough, K. A. & Falkow, S. ( 1989;). A Yersinia pestis-specific DNA fragment encodes temperature-dependent coagulase and fibrinolysin-associated phenotypes. Mol Microbiol 3, 767–775.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Mecsas, J., Bilis, I. & Falkow, S. ( 2001;). Identification of attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains and characterization of an orogastric infection in BALB/c mice on day 5 postinfection by signature-tagged mutagenesis. Infect Immun 69, 2779–2787.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Nesper, J., Lauriano, C. M., Klose, K. E., Kapfhammer, D., Kraiss, A. & Reidl, J. ( 2001;). Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor galU and galE mutants: influence on lipopolysaccharide structure, colonization, and biofilm formation. Infect Immun 69, 435–445.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Ogasawara, M., Granfors, K., Kono, D. H., Hill, J. L. & Tak Yan Yu, D. ( 1985;). A Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 3 lipopolysaccharide-specific monoclonal antibody reacts more strongly with bacteria cultured at room temperature than those cultured at 37 °C. J Immunol 135, 553–559.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Pajunen, M., Kiljunen, S. & Skurnik, M. ( 2000;). Bacteriophage ϕYeO3-12, specific for Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 3, is related to coliphages T3 and T7. J Bacteriol 182, 5114–5120.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Pajunen, M. I., Kiljunen, S. J., Soderholm, M. E. & Skurnik, M. ( 2001;). Complete genomic sequence of the lytic bacteriophage ϕYeO3-12 of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 3. J Bacteriol 183, 1928–1937.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Perry, R. D. & Fetherston, J. D. ( 1997;). Yersinia pestis – etiologic agent of plague. Clin Microbiol Rev 10, 35–66.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Porat, R., Johns, M. A. & McCabe, W. R. ( 1987;). Selective pressures and lipopolysaccharide subunits as determinants of resistance of clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli to human serum. Infect Immun 55, 320–328.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Porat, R., McCabe, W. R. & Brubaker, R. R. ( 1995;). Lipopolysaccharide-associated resistance to killing of yersiniae by complement. J Endotoxin Res 2, 91–97.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Prior, J. L., Parkhill, J., Hitchen, P. G. & 8 other authors ( 2001;). The failure of different strains of Yersinia pestis to produce lipopolysaccharide O-antigen under different growth conditions is due to mutations in the O-antigen gene cluster. FEMS Microbiol Lett 197, 229–233.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Reed, L. J. & Muench, H. ( 1938;). A simple method for estimating fifty percent endpoints. Am J Hyg 27, 493–497.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Reeves, P. (1994). Biosynthesis and assembly of lipopolysaccharide. In Bacterial Cell Wall, pp. 281–317. Edited by R. Hackenbeck. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  37. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F. & Maniatis, T. (1989). Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
  38. Sebbane, F., Devalckenaere, A., Foulon, J., Carniel, E. & Simonet, M. ( 2001;). Silencing and reactivation of urease in Yersinia pestis is determined by one G residue at a specific position in the ureD gene. Infect Immun 69, 170–176.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Skurnik, M. ( 1984;). Lack of correlation between the presence of plasmids and fimbriae in Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. J Appl Bacteriol 56, 355–363.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Skurnik, M. & Toivanen, P. ( 1993;). Yersinia enterocolitica lipopolysaccharide: genetics and virulence. Trends Microbiol 1, 148–152.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Skurnik, M., Venho, R., Toivanen, P. & al-Hendy, A. ( 1995;). A novel locus of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 3 involved in lipopolysaccharide outer core biosynthesis. Mol Microbiol 17, 575–594.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Skurnik, M., Venho, R., Bengoechea, J. A. & Moriyon, I. ( 1999;). The lipopolysaccharide outer core of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 3 is required for virulence and plays a role in outer membrane integrity. Mol Microbiol 31, 1443–1462.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Skurnik, M., Peippo, A. & Ervela, E. ( 2000;). Characterization of the O-antigen gene clusters of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and the cryptic O-antigen gene cluster of Yersinia pestis shows that the plague bacillus is most closely related to and has evolved from Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype O : 1b. Mol Microbiol 37, 316–330.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Une, T. & Brubaker, R. R. ( 1984;). In vivo comparison of avirulent Vwa and Pgm or Pstr phenotypes of yersiniae. Infect Immun 43, 895–900.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Vinogradov, E. V., Lindner, B., Kocharova, N. A. & 7 other authors ( 2002;). The core structure of the lipopolysaccharide from the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis. Carbohydr Res 337, 775–777.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Vogel, U., Claus, H., Heinze, G. & Frosch, M. ( 1999;). Role of lipopolysaccharide sialylation in serum resistance of serogroup B and C meningococcal disease isolates. Infect Immun 67, 954–957.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Wachter, E. & Brade, V. ( 1989;). Influence of surface modulations by enzymes and monoclonal antibodies on alternative complement pathway activation by Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect Immun 57, 1984–1989.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Welkos, S. L., Davis, K. M., Pitt, L. M., Worsham, P. L. & Friedlander, A. M. ( 1995;). Studies on the contribution of the F1 capsule-associated plasmid pFra to the virulence of Yersinia pestis. Contrib Microbiol Immunol 13, 299–305.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Zhang, L., Radziejewska-Lebrecht, J., Krajewska-Pietrasik, D., Toivanen, P. & Skurnik, M. ( 1997;). Molecular and chemical characterization of the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen and its role in the virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 8. Mol Microbiol 23, 63–76.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05044-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.05044-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error