1887

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and allele associations of locus of enterocyte effacement encoded and genes among 181 enteropathogenic (EPEC) strains (90 diarrhoea-associated and 91 controls) isolated from Peruvian children under 18 months of age. We analysed , , and alleles by PCR-RFLP. EPEC strains were isolated with higher frequency from healthy controls (91/424, 21.7 %) than from diarrhoeal samples (90/936, 9.6 %) (<0.001); 28.9 % of diarrhoeal and 17.6 % of control samples were typical EPEC (tEPEC). The distribution of alleles (alpha, beta, beta2 and gamma) and alleles (alpha, beta, gamma and a new variant, -N1) between tEPEC and atypical EPEC (aEPEC) was significantly different (<0.05). -alpha was more common among acute episodes (<0.05). typing resulted in five alleles (alpha, beta, gamma and two new sub-alleles, -alpha2 and -alpha3), while -beta and -gamma2 were the most common intimin receptor subtypes. Seventy-two combinations of , , and alleles were found; the most prevalent combination was -beta, -beta, -beta, -beta (34/181 strains), which was more frequent among tEPEC strains (<0.05). Our findings indicate that there is a high degree of heterogeneity among EPEC strains isolated from Peruvian children and that aEPEC and tEPEC variants cluster.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.045443-0
2012-08-01
2020-01-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/61/8/1114.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.045443-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Afset J. E. , Bruant G. , Brousseau R. , Harel J. , Anderssen E. , Bevanger L. , Bergh K. . ( 2006; ). Identification of virulence genes linked with diarrhea due to atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli by DNA microarray analysis and PCR. . J Clin Microbiol 44:, 3703–3711. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Afset J. E. , Anderssen E. , Bruant G. , Harel J. , Wieler L. , Bergh K. . ( 2008; ). Phylogenetic backgrounds and virulence profiles of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains from a case-control study using multilocus sequence typing and DNA microarray analysis. . J Clin Microbiol 46:, 2280–2290. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bando S. Y. , Andrade F. B. , Guth B. E. , Elias W. P. , Moreira-Filho C. A. , Pestana de Castro A. F. . ( 2009; ). Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli genomic background allows the acquisition of non-EPEC virulence factors. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 299:, 22–30. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Blanco M. , Blanco J. E. , Dahbi G. , Mora A. , Alonso M. P. , Varela G. , Gadea M. P. , Schelotto F. , González E. A. , Blanco J. . ( 2006; ). Typing of intimin (eae) genes from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolated from children with diarrhoea in Montevideo, Uruguay: identification of two novel intimin variants (μB and ξR/β2B). . J Med Microbiol 55:, 1165–1174. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Castillo A. , Eguiarte L. E. , Souza V. . ( 2005; ). A genomic population genetics analysis of the pathogenic enterocyte effacement island in Escherichia coli: the search for the unit of selection. . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:, 1542–1547. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chen H. D. , Frankel G. . ( 2005; ). Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: unravelling pathogenesis. . FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:, 83–98. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. China B. , Goffaux F. , Pirson V. , Mainil J. . ( 1999; ). Comparison of eae, tir, espA and espB genes of bovine and human attaching and effacing Escherichia coli by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 178:, 177–182. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Contreras C. A. , Ochoa T. J. , Lacher D. W. , DebRoy C. , Navarro A. , Talledo M. , Donnenberg M. S. , Ecker L. , Gil A. I. . & other authors ( 2010; ). Allelic variability of critical virulence genes (eae, bfpA and perA) in typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Peruvian children. . J Med Microbiol 59:, 25–31. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dean P. , Kenny B. . ( 2009; ). The effector repertoire of enteropathogenic E. coli: ganging up on the host cell. . Curr Opin Microbiol 12:, 101–109. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Deng W. , Li Y. , Vallance B. A. , Finlay B. B. . ( 2001; ). Locus of enterocyte effacement from Citrobacter rodentium: sequence analysis and evidence for horizontal transfer among attaching and effacing pathogens. . Infect Immun 69:, 6323–6335. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Deng W. , Puente J. L. , Gruenheid S. , Li Y. , Vallance B. A. , Vázquez A. , Barba J. , Ibarra J. A. , O’Donnell P. . & other authors ( 2004; ). Dissecting virulence: systematic and functional analyses of a pathogenicity island. . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:, 3597–3602.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Donnenberg M. S. , Girón J. A. , Nataro J. P. , Kaper J. B. . ( 1992; ). A plasmid-encoded type IV fimbrial gene of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli associated with localized adherence. . Mol Microbiol 6:, 3427–3437. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dulguer M. V. , Fabbricotti S. H. , Bando S. Y. , Moreira-Filho C. A. , Fagundes-Neto U. , Scaletsky I. C. . ( 2003; ). Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains: phenotypic and genetic profiling reveals a strong association between enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin and diarrhea. . J Infect Dis 188:, 1685–1694. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Frankel G. , Phillips A. D. , Rosenshine I. , Dougan G. , Kaper J. B. , Knutton S. . ( 1998; ). Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli: more subversive elements. . Mol Microbiol 30:, 911–921. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Garrido P. , Blanco M. , Moreno-Paz M. , Briones C. , Dahbi G. , Blanco J. , Blanco J. , Parro V. . ( 2006; ). STEC-EPEC oligonucleotide microarray: a new tool for typing genetic variants of the LEE pathogenicity island of human and animal Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains. . Clin Chem 52:, 192–201. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Goffaux F. , China B. , Mainil J. . ( 2001; ). Organisation and in vitro expression of esp genes of the LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) of bovine enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli . . Vet Microbiol 83:, 275–286. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Guion C. E. , Ochoa T. J. , Walker C. M. , Barletta F. , Cleary T. G. . ( 2008; ). Detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli by use of melting-curve analysis and real-time multiplex PCR. . J Clin Microbiol 46:, 1752–1757. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Lacher D. W. , Steinsland H. , Whittam T. S. . ( 2006; ). Allelic subtyping of the intimin locus (eae) of pathogenic Escherichia coli by fluorescent RFLP. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 261:, 80–87. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Müller D. , Benz I. , Liebchen A. , Gallitz I. , Karch H. , Schmidt M. A. . ( 2009; ). Comparative analysis of the locus of enterocyte effacement and its flanking regions. . Infect Immun 77:, 3501–3513. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Nataro J. P. , Kaper J. B. . ( 1998; ). Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli . . Clin Microbiol Rev 11:, 142–201.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Nielsen E. M. , Andersen M. T. . ( 2003; ). Detection and characterization of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli by automated 5′ nuclease PCR assay. . J Clin Microbiol 41:, 2884–2893. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ochoa T. J. , Barletta F. , Contreras C. , Mercado E. . ( 2008; ). New insights into the epidemiology of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection. . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:, 852–856. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ochoa T. J. , Ecker L. , Barletta F. , Mispireta M. L. , Gil A. I. , Contreras C. , Molina M. , Amemiya I. , Verastegui H. . & other authors ( 2009; ). Age-related susceptibility to infection with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among infants from periurban areas in Lima, Peru. . Clin Infect Dis 49:, 1694–1702. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ruuska T. , Vesikari T. . ( 1990; ). Rotavirus disease in Finnish children: use of numerical scores for clinical severity of diarrhoeal episodes. . Scand J Infect Dis 22:, 259–267. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Scaletsky I. C. , Fabbricotti S. H. , Silva S. O. , Morais M. B. , Fagundes-Neto U. . ( 2002; ). HEp-2-adherent Escherichia coli strains associated with acute infantile diarrhea, São Paulo, Brazil. . Emerg Infect Dis 8:, 855–858.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Torres A. G. , Zhou X. , Kaper J. B. . ( 2005; ). Adherence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains to epithelial cells. . Infect Immun 73:, 18–29. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Trabulsi L. R. , Keller R. , Tardelli Gomes T. A. . ( 2002; ). Typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli . . Emerg Infect Dis 8:, 508–513.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Vieira M. A. , Andrade J. R. , Trabulsi L. R. , Rosa A. C. , Dias A. M. , Ramos S. R. , Frankel G. , Gomes T. A. . ( 2001; ). Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Escherichia coli strains of non-enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) serogroups that carry EAE and lack the EPEC adherence factor and Shiga toxin DNA probe sequences. . J Infect Dis 183:, 762–772. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Wong A. R. , Pearson J. S. , Bright M. D. , Munera D. , Robinson K. S. , Lee S. F. , Frankel G. , Hartland E. L. . ( 2011; ). Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli: even more subversive elements. . Mol Microbiol 80:, 1420–1438. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Yuste M. , Orden J. A. , De La Fuente R. , Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria J. A. , Cid D. , Martínez-Pulgarín S. , Domínguez-Bernal G. . ( 2008; ). Polymerase chain reaction typing of genes of the locus of enterocyte effacement of ruminant attaching and effacing Escherichia coil . . Can J Vet Res 72:, 444–448.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.045443-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.045443-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary Tables 

PDF
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error