1887

Abstract

Active efflux has an important role in the antimicrobial resistance of and . The effects of two putative efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs), phenylalanine-arginine β-naphthylamide and 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine, and the effects of inactivation of the , and genes on resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials were studied using the broth microdilution method. The antimicrobials tested in and were the biocides triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate, cetylpyridinium chloride and trisodium phosphate, along with the anionic surfactant SDS and the antibiotics erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. Both EPIs partially reversed the resistance to all of these antimicrobials. Differences between these EPIs were seen for substrate preference and reductions in MIC. The MICs of the antimicrobials were reduced in the and mutants and increased in the mutant, with few exceptions. Both of these putative EPIs further decreased the MICs of the antimicrobials in these mutant strains. These data confirm that active efflux is an important mechanism in biocide resistance in and . At least one non-CmeABC efflux system or reduced uptake is responsible for resistance to biocides.

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2012-06-01
2020-04-05
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