1887

Abstract

is a pathogen that can be the cause of nosocomial infections, community-acquired diseases and food-borne disease outbreaks. A number of variable number tandem repeat loci have been reported by various groups for use in epidemiological studies and outbreak investigations. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate a total of 18 commonly used loci with the same population so that the properties of each locus could be compared and used for typing, and to develop a computer program enabling calculation of the Simpson index (SI) of all possible loci combinations so that an optimal combination of loci could be identified for multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) typing. A collection of 160 isolates from patients with sporadic food-borne illnesses, and pet animals, such as canine, feline and equine pets, with skin infections were used to assess the MLVA loci. The newly developed Optimal Combination Finder (OCF) computer program was used for the analysis and it was found that the minimal number of loci combinations that produced the same SI (0.999528) as that of the 18 loci combined was eight; SIRU05, SIRU07, SIRU13, SIRU15, SIRU21, , and . This suggested that the optimal combination of eight loci could be used for the routine investigation and surveillance of future outbreaks instead of using all 18 loci. In addition, the OCF software could be a useful tool for the development of typing schemes for other organisms.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.040287-0
2012-05-01
2019-10-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/61/5/631.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.040287-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Asao T., Kumeda Y., Kawai T., Shibata T., Oda H., Haruki K., Nakazawa H., Kozaki S.. ( 2003;). An extensive outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning due to low-fat milk in Japan: estimation of enterotoxin A in the incriminated milk and powdered skim milk. . Epidemiol Infect 130:, 33–40. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bannerman T., Peacock S.. ( 2007;). Staphylococcus, Micrococcus and other catalase-positive cocci. . In Manual of Clinical Microbiology, , 9th edn., vol. 1, pp. 390–411. Edited by Murray P. R., Baron E. J., Jorgensen J. H., Landry M. L., Pfaller M. A... Washington, DC:: American Society for Microbiology;.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Conceição T., Aires de Sousa M., de Lencastre H.. ( 2009;). Staphylococcal interspersed repeat unit typing of Staphylococcus aureus: evaluation of a new multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis typing method. . J Clin Microbiol 47:, 1300–1308. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Coombs G. W., Nimmo G. R., Pearson J. C., Christiansen K. J., Bell J. M., Collignon P. J., McLaws M. L..Australian Group for Antimicrobial Resistance ( 2009;). Prevalence of MRSA strains among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from outpatients, 2006. . Commun Dis Intell 33:, 10–20.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cowell N. A., Hansen M. T., Langley A. J., Graham T. M., Bates J. R.. ( 2002;). Outbreak of staphylococcal enterotoxin food poisoning. . Commun Dis Intell 26:, 574–575.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Francois P., Huyghe A., Charbonnier Y., Bento M., Herzig S., Topolski I., Fleury B., Lew D., Vaudaux P.. & other authors ( 2005;). Use of an automated multiple-locus, variable-number tandem repeat-based method for rapid and high-throughput genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. . J Clin Microbiol 43:, 3346–3355. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Fullerton K..OzFoodNet Working Group ( 2009;). OzFoodNet quarterly report, 1 October to 31 December 2008. . Commun Dis Intell 33:, 53–58.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gilbert F. B., Fromageau A., Gélineau L., Poutrel B.. ( 2006;). Differentiation of bovine Staphylococcus aureus isolates by use of polymorphic tandem repeat typing. . Vet Microbiol 117:, 297–303. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Grissa I., Bouchon P., Pourcel C., Vergnaud G.. ( 2008;). On-line resources for bacterial micro-evolution studies using MLVA or CRISPR typing. . Biochimie 90:, 660–668. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hardy K. J., Ussery D. W., Oppenheim B. A., Hawkey P. M.. ( 2004;). Distribution and characterization of staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRUs) and potential use for strain differentiation. . Microbiology 150:, 4045–4052. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hardy K. J., Oppenheim B. A., Gossain S., Gao F., Hawkey P. M.. ( 2006;). Use of variations in staphylococcal interspersed repeat units for molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. . J Clin Microbiol 44:, 271–273. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hunter P. R., Gaston M. A.. ( 1988;). Numerical index of the discriminatory ability of typing systems: an application of Simpson’s index of diversity. . J Clin Microbiol 26:, 2465–2466.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hwang S. Y., Kim S. H., Jang E. J., Kwon N. H., Park Y. K., Koo H. C., Jung W. K., Kim J. M., Park Y. H.. ( 2007;). Novel multiplex PCR for the detection of the Staphylococcus aureus superantigen and its application to raw meat isolates in Korea. . Int J Food Microbiol 117:, 99–105. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ikawaty R., Willems R. J., Box A. T., Verhoef J., Fluit A. C.. ( 2008;). Novel multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis method for rapid molecular typing of human Staphylococcus aureus. . J Clin Microbiol 46:, 3147–3151. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Le Loir Y., Baron F., Gautier M.. ( 2003;). Staphylococcus aureus and food poisoning. . Genet Mol Res 2:, 63–76.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lindstedt B. A.. ( 2005;). Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeats analysis for genetic fingerprinting of pathogenic bacteria. . Electrophoresis 26:, 2567–2582. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Malachowa N., Sabat A., Gniadkowski M., Krzyszton-Russjan J., Empel J., Miedzobrodzki J., Kosowska-Shick K., Appelbaum P. C., Hryniewicz W.. ( 2005;). Comparison of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing for clonal characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. . J Clin Microbiol 43:, 3095–3100. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Melles D. C., Schouls L., François P., Herzig S., Verbrugh H. A., van Belkum A., Schrenzel J.. ( 2009;). High-throughput typing of Staphylococcus aureus by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) or multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) reveals consistent strain relatedness. . Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 28:, 39–45. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Pourcel C., Hormigos K., Onteniente L., Sakwinska O., Deurenberg R. H., Vergnaud G.. ( 2009;). Improved multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat assay for Staphylococcus aureus genotyping, providing a highly informative technique together with strong phylogenetic value. . J Clin Microbiol 47:, 3121–3128. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Sabat A., Krzyszton-Russjan J., Strzalka W., Filipek R., Kosowska K., Hryniewicz W., Travis J., Potempa J.. ( 2003;). New method for typing Staphylococcus aureus strains: multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of polymorphism and genetic relationships of clinical isolates. . J Clin Microbiol 41:, 1801–1804. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Schmitt M., Schuler-Schmid U., Schmidt-Lorenz W.. ( 1990;). Temperature limits of growth, TNase and enterotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods. . Int J Food Microbiol 11:, 1–19. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Schouls L. M., Spalburg E. C., van Luit M., Huijsdens X. W., Pluister G. N., van Santen-Verheuvel M. G., van der Heide H. G., Grundmann H., Heck M. E., de Neeling A. J.. ( 2009;). Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of Staphylococcus aureus: comparison with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and spa-typing. . PLoS ONE 4:, e5082. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Tenover F. C., Vaughn R. R., McDougal L. K., Fosheim G. E., McGowan J. E. Jr. ( 2007;). Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat assay analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. . J Clin Microbiol 45:, 2215–2219. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Torpdahl M., Sørensen G., Lindstedt B. A., Nielsen E. M.. ( 2007;). Tandem repeat analysis for surveillance of human Salmonella Typhimurium infections. . Emerg Infect Dis 13:, 388–395. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. van Belkum A.. ( 2007;). Tracing isolates of bacterial species by multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). . FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 49:, 22–27. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Vindel A., Cuevas O., Cercenado E., Marcos C., Bautista V., Castellares C., Trincado P., Boquete T., Pérez-Vázquez M.. & other authors ( 2009;). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Spain: molecular epidemiology and utility of different typing methods. . J Clin Microbiol 47:, 1620–1627. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.040287-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.040287-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error