1887

Abstract

When thermal injury damages the skin, the physical barrier protecting underlying tissues from invading micro-organisms is compromised and the host’s immune system becomes supressed, facilitating colonization and infection of burn wounds with micro-organisms. Within the wound, bacteria often develop biofilms, which protect the bacteria from the immune response and enhance their resistance to antibiotics. As the prophylactic use of conventional antibiotics drives selection of drug-resistant strains, the use of novel agents to prevent biofilm formation by wound pathogens is essential. In the present study, we utilized our recently developed wound biofilm model to examine the antibiofilm activity of garlic (). Wound pathogens were inoculated on sterile cellulose discs, exposed to formulated garlic ointment (GarO) or ointment base, and incubated to allow biofilm development. Biofilms were quantified and visualized microscopically. GarO prevented biofilm development by , , , and , and caused a 2–5 log reduction of the bioburden within biofilms. Additionally, GarO disrupted partially developed biofilms produced by , and . The antistaphylococcal activity of GarO was stable for over 3 months at room temperature. Thus, GarO could be used as a prophylactic therapy to prevent wound biofilms caused by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria from forming, and may be a potential therapy for disrupting established staphylococcal biofilms.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.038638-0
2012-05-01
2019-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/61/5/662.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.038638-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Al-Waili N. S., Saloom K. Y., Akmal M., Al-Waili T. N., Al-Waili A. N., Al-Waili H., Ali A., Al-Sahlani K.. ( 2007;). Effects of heating, storage, and ultraviolet exposure on antimicrobial activity of garlic juice. . J Med Food 10:, 208–212. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bachrach G., Jamil A., Naor R., Tal G., Ludmer Z., Steinberg D.. ( 2011;). Garlic allicin as a potential agent for controlling oral pathogens. . J Med Food 14:, 1338–1343. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bjarnsholt T., Jensen P. Ø., Rasmussen T. B., Christophersen L., Calum H., Hentzer M., Hougen H. P., Rygaard J., Moser C.. & other authors ( 2005;). Garlic blocks quorum sensing and promotes rapid clearing of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. . Microbiology 151:, 3873–3880. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bjarnsholt T., Kirketerp-Møller K., Jensen P. Ø., Madsen K. G., Phipps R., Krogfelt K., Høiby N., Givskov M.. ( 2008;). Why chronic wounds will not heal: a novel hypothesis. . Wound Repair Regen 16:, 2–10. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Brackman G., Cos P., Maes L., Nelis H. J., Coenye T.. ( 2011;). Quorum sensing inhibitors increase the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to antibiotics in vitro and in vivo. . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:, 2655–2661. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Church D., Elsayed S., Reid O., Winston B., Lindsay R.. ( 2006;). Burn wound infections. . Clin Microbiol Rev 19:, 403–434. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Costerton J. W., Stewart P. S., Greenberg E. P.. ( 1999;). Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. . Science 284:, 1318–1322. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Davies D. G., Parsek M. R., Pearson J. P., Iglewski B. H., Costerton J. W., Greenberg E. P.. ( 1998;). The involvement of cell-to-cell signals in the development of a bacterial biofilm. . Science 280:, 295–298. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Donlan R. M.. ( 2011;). Biofilm elimination on intravascular catheters: important considerations for the infectious disease practitioner. . Clin Infect Dis 52:, 1038–1045. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Donlan R. M., Costerton J. W.. ( 2002;). Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms. . Clin Microbiol Rev 15:, 167–193. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Edwards R., Harding K. G.. ( 2004;). Bacteria and wound healing. . Curr Opin Infect Dis 17:, 91–96. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hammond A. A., Miller K. G., Kruczek C. J., Dertien J., Colmer-Hamood J. A., Griswold J. A., Horswill A. R., Hamood A. N.. ( 2011;). An in vitro biofilm model to examine the effect of antibiotic ointments on biofilms produced by burn wound bacterial isolates. . Burns 37:, 312–321. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Harjai K., Kumar R., Singh S.. ( 2010;). Garlic blocks quorum sensing and attenuates the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. . FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 58:, 161–168. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Heydorn A., Nielsen A. T., Hentzer M., Sternberg C., Givskov M., Ersbøll B. K., Molin S.. ( 2000;). Quantification of biofilm structures by the novel computer program comstat. . Microbiology 146:, 2395–2407.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. James G. A., Swogger E., Wolcott R., Pulcini E., Secor P., Sestrich J., Costerton J. W., Stewart P. S.. ( 2008;). Biofilms in chronic wounds. . Wound Repair Regen 16:, 37–44. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Keen E. F. III, Robinson B. J., Hospenthal D. R., Aldous W. K., Wolf S. E., Chung K. K., Murray C. K.. ( 2010;). Prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms recovered at a military burn center. . Burns 36:, 819–825. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kennedy P., Brammah S., Wills E.. ( 2010;). Burns, biofilm and a new appraisal of burn wound sepsis. . Burns 36:, 49–56. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kooistra-Smid M., Nieuwenhuis M., van Belkum A., Verbrugh H.. ( 2009;). The role of nasal carriage in Staphylococcus aureus burn wound colonization. . FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 57:, 1–13. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Macleod S. M., Stickler D. J.. ( 2007;). Species interactions in mixed-community crystalline biofilms on urinary catheters. . J Med Microbiol 56:, 1549–1557. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Malone C. L., Boles B. R., Lauderdale K. J., Thoendel M., Kavanaugh J. S., Horswill A. R.. ( 2009;). Fluorescent reporters for Staphylococcus aureus. . J Microbiol Methods 77:, 251–260. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Murphy K. D., Lee J. O., Herndon D. N.. ( 2003;). Current pharmacotherapy for the treatment of severe burns. . Expert Opin Pharmacother 4:, 369–384. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Posluszny J. A. Jr, Conrad P., Halerz M., Shankar R., Gamelli R. L.. ( 2011;). Surgical burn wound infections and their clinical implications. . J Burn Care Res 32:, 324–333. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Rafla K., Tredget E. E.. ( 2011;). Infection control in the burn unit. . Burns 37:, 5–15. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Rahme L. G., Stevens E. J., Wolfort S. F., Shao J., Tompkins R. G., Ausubel F. M.. ( 1995;). Common virulence factors for bacterial pathogenicity in plants and animals. . Science 268:, 1899–1902. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rasmussen T. B., Bjarnsholt T. S., Skindersoe M. E., Hentzer M., Kristoffersen P., Köte M., Nielsen J., Eberl L., Givskov M.. ( 2005;). Screening for quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSI) by use of a novel genetic system, the QSI selector. . J Bacteriol 187:, 1799–1814. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rattanachaikunsopon P., Phumkhachorn P.. ( 2009;). Antimicrobial activity of elephant garlic oil against Vibrio cholerae in vitro and in a food model. . Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 73:, 1623–1627. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sarkar S., Chakraborty R.. ( 2008;). Quorum sensing in metal tolerance of Acinetobacter junii BB1A is associated with biofilm production. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 282:, 160–165. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Schaber J. A., Triffo W. J., Suh S. J., Oliver J. W., Hastert M. C., Griswold J. A., Auer M., Hamood A. N., Rumbaugh K. P.. ( 2007;). Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms in acute infection independent of cell-to-cell signaling. . Infect Immun 75:, 3715–3721. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Silver S., Phung T., Silver G.. ( 2006;). Silver as biocides in burn and wound dressings and bacterial resistance to silver compounds. . J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 33:, 627–634. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Smyth A. R., Cifelli P. M., Ortori C. A., Righetti K., Lewis S., Erskine P., Holland E. D., Givskov M., Williams P.. & other authors ( 2010;). Garlic as an inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing in cystic fibrosis – a pilot randomized controlled trial. . Pediatr Pulmonol 45:, 356–362.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Stoodley P., Sauer K., Davies D. G., Costerton J. W.. ( 2002;). Biofilms as complex differentiated communities. . Annu Rev Microbiol 56:, 187–209. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sutherland I. W.. ( 2001;). The biofilm matrix – an immobilized but dynamic microbial environment. . Trends Microbiol 9:, 222–227. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Tran P. L., Lowry N., Campbell T., Reid T. W., Webster D. R., Tobin E., Aslani A., Mosley T., Dertien J.. & other authors ( 2012;). An organoselenium compound inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilms on hemodialysis catheters in vivo. . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:, 972–978. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Tsao S. M., Hsu C. C., Yin M. C.. ( 2003;). Garlic extract and two diallyl sulphides inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in BALB/cA mice. . J Antimicrob Chemother 52:, 974–980. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.038638-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.038638-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error