1887

Abstract

, particularly serotype 2, is a pathogen of both pigs and humans associated with a wide range of diseases, including meningitis, septicaemia and endocarditis. Among the genes in the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis () locus, exists only in the serotype 2 and 1/2 strains; therefore, -positive strains are suspected to have capsules of serotype 2 or 1/2. Coagglutination using antiserotype 1 and antiserotype 2 sera and/or transmission electron microscopy analysis of 288 -positive isolates from pigs showed that 32 (100 %) isolates from meningitis were encapsulated, whereas 86 (34 %) of 256 isolates from endocarditis were unencapsulated, indicating that capsule loss often occurred in the isolates from endocarditis. To investigate the genetic backgrounds, we randomly selected 43 unencapsulated isolates and analysed their loci by PCR scanning. Among them, 8 and 10 isolates apparently had deletions and insertions, respectively, in loci. In addition, a representative unencapsulated isolate and an unencapsulated strain showed adherence to porcine and human platelets, a major virulence determinant for infective endocarditis, to a significantly greater extent than the encapsulated strains. Although the capsule is considered to be an important virulence factor in , these results suggest that loss of capsular production is beneficial to in the course of infective endocarditis.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.034686-0
2011-11-01
2019-12-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/60/11/1669.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.034686-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Benga L. , Goethe R. , Rohde M. , Valentin-Weigand P. . ( 2004; ). Non-encapsulated strains reveal novel insights in invasion and survival of Streptococcus suis in epithelial cells. . Cell Microbiol 6:, 867–881. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Benga L. , Friedl P. , Valentin-Weigand P. . ( 2005; ). Adherence of Streptococcus suis to porcine endothelial cells. . J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 52:, 392–395.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Benga L. , Fulde M. , Neis C. , Goethe R. , Valentin-Weigand P. . ( 2008; ). Polysaccharide capsule and suilysin contribute to extracellular survival of Streptococcus suis co-cultivated with primary porcine phagocytes. . Vet Microbiol 132:, 211–219. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chabot-Roy G. , Willson P. , Segura M. , Lacouture S. , Gottschalk M. . ( 2006; ). Phagocytosis and killing of Streptococcus suis by porcine neutrophils. . Microb Pathog 41:, 21–32. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Charland N. , Harel J. , Kobisch M. , Lacasse S. , Gottschalk M. . ( 1998; ). Streptococcus suis serotype 2 mutants deficient in capsular expression. . Microbiology 144:, 325–332. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Esgleas M. , Lacouture S. , Gottschalk M. . ( 2005; ). Streptococcus suis serotype 2 binding to extracellular matrix proteins. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 244:, 33–40. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Gottschalk M. , Higgins R. , Jacques M. , Mittal K. R. , Henrichsen J. . ( 1989; ). Description of 14 new capsular types of Streptococcus suis . . J Clin Microbiol 27:, 2633–2636.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gottschalk M. , Higgins R. , Jacques M. . ( 1993; ). Production of capsular material by Streptococcus suis serotype 2 under different growth conditions. . Can J Vet Res 57:, 49–52.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Gottschalk M. , Segura M. , Xu J. . ( 2007; ). Streptococcus suis infections in humans: the Chinese experience and the situation in North America. . Anim Health Res Rev 8:, 29–45. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Han D. U. , Choi C. , Ham H. J. , Jung J. H. , Cho W. S. , Kim J. , Higgins R. , Chae C. . ( 2001; ). Prevalence, capsular type and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from slaughter pigs in Korea. . Can J Vet Res 65:, 151–155.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Herzberg M. C. . ( 1996; ). Platelet–streptococcal interactions in endocarditis. . Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 7:, 222–236. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Higgins R. , Gottschalk M. . ( 1990; ). An update on Streptococcus suis identification. . J Vet Diagn Invest 2:, 249–252. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Higgins R. , Gottschalk M. . ( 2006; ). Streptococcal diseases. . In Diseases of Swine, pp. 769–783. Edited by Straw B. E. , Zimmerman J. J. , D’Allaires S. , Taylor D. J. . . Ames, Iowa:: Blackwell Publishing;.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Holden M. T. , Hauser H. , Sanders M. , Ngo T. H. , Cherevach I. , Cronin A. , Goodhead I. , Mungall K. , Quail M. A. et al. & other authors ( 2009; ). Rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance in the emerging zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis . . PLoS ONE 4:, e6072. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hoshinoo K. , Sasaki K. , Tanaka A. , Corbeil L. B. , Tagawa Y. . ( 2009; ). Virulence attributes of Histophilus somni with a deletion mutation in the ibpA gene. . Microb Pathog 46:, 273–282. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Jacques M. , Gottschalk M. , Foiry B. , Higgins R. . ( 1990; ). Ultrastructural study of surface components of Streptococcus suis . . J Bacteriol 172:, 2833–2838.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kataoka Y. , Sugimoto C. , Nakazawa M. , Morozumi T. , Kashiwazaki M. . ( 1993; ). The epidemiological studies of Streptococcus suis infections in Japan from 1987 to 1991. . J Vet Med Sci 55:, 623–626. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Katsumi M. , Kataoka Y. , Takahashi T. , Kikuchi N. , Hiramune T. . ( 1997; ). Bacterial isolation from slaughtered pigs associated with endocarditis, especially the isolation of Streptococcus suis . . J Vet Med Sci 59:, 75–78. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Mackie E. B. , Brown K. N. , Lam J. , Costerton J. W. . ( 1979; ). Morphological stabilization of capsules of group B streptococci, types Ia, Ib, II, and III, with specific antibody. . J Bacteriol 138:, 609–617.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Michel F. , Ferat J. L. . ( 1995; ). Structure and activities of group II introns. . Annu Rev Biochem 64:, 435–461. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mogollon J. D. , Pijoan C. , Murtaugh M. P. , Kaplan E. L. , Collins J. E. , Cleary P. P. . ( 1990; ). Characterization of prototype and clinically defined strains of Streptococcus suis by genomic fingerprinting. . J Clin Microbiol 28:, 2462–2466.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ochman H. , Gerber A. S. , Hartl D. L. . ( 1988; ). Genetic applications of an inverse polymerase chain reaction. . Genetics 120:, 621–623.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Okura M. , Osaki M. , Fittipaldi N. , Gottschalk M. , Sekizaki T. , Takamatsu D. . ( 2011; ). The minor pilin subunit Sgp2 is necessary for assembly of the pilus encoded by the srtG cluster of Streptococcus suis . . J Bacteriol 193:, 822–831. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Okwumabua O. , O’Connor M. , Shull E. . ( 2003; ). A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay specific for Streptococcus suis based on the gene encoding the glutamate dehydrogenase. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 218:, 79–84. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Salasia S. I. , Lämmler C. , Herrmann G. . ( 1995; ). Properties of a Streptococcus suis isolate of serotype 2 and two capsular mutants. . Vet Microbiol 45:, 151–156. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Sekizaki T. , Otani Y. , Osaki M. , Takamatsu D. , Shimoji Y. . ( 2001; ). Evidence for horizontal transfer of SsuDAT1I restriction-modification genes to the Streptococcus suis genome. . J Bacteriol 183:, 500–511. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sellin M. , Linderholm M. , Norgren M. , Håkansson S. . ( 1992; ). Endocarditis caused by a group B Streptococcus strain, type III, in a nonencapsulated phase. . J Clin Microbiol 30:, 2471–2473.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Silva L. M. , Baums C. G. , Rehm T. , Wisselink H. J. , Goethe R. , Valentin-Weigand P. . ( 2006; ). Virulence-associated gene profiling of Streptococcus suis isolates by PCR. . Vet Microbiol 115:, 117–127. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Slater J. D. , Allen A. G. , May J. P. , Bolitho S. , Lindsay H. , Maskell D. J. . ( 2003; ). Mutagenesis of Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus suis by transposon Tn917 . . Vet Microbiol 93:, 197–206. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Smith H. E. , Damman M. , van der Velde J. , Wagenaar F. , Wisselink H. J. , Stockhofe-Zurwieden N. , Smits M. A. . ( 1999a; ). Identification and characterization of the cps locus of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: the capsule protects against phagocytosis and is an important virulence factor. . Infect Immun 67:, 1750–1756.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Smith H. E. , van Bruijnsvoort L. , Buijs H. , Wisselink H. J. , Smits M. A. . ( 1999b; ). Rapid PCR test for Streptococcus suis serotype 7. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 178:, 265–270. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Smith H. E. , Veenbergen V. , van der Velde J. , Damman M. , Wisselink H. J. , Smits M. A. . ( 1999c; ). The cps genes of Streptococcus suis serotypes 1, 2, and 9: development of rapid serotype-specific PCR assays. . J Clin Microbiol 37:, 3146–3152.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Smith H. E. , de Vries R. , van’t Slot R. , Smits M. A. . ( 2000; ). The cps locus of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: genetic determinant for the synthesis of sialic acid. . Microb Pathog 29:, 127–134. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Sullam P. M. , Bayer A. S. , Foss W. M. , Cheung A. L. . ( 1996; ). Diminished platelet binding in vitro by Staphylococcus aureus is associated with reduced virulence in a rabbit model of infective endocarditis. . Infect Immun 64:, 4915–4921.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Tanabe S. , Bonifait L. , Fittipaldi N. , Grignon L. , Gottschalk M. , Grenier D. . ( 2010; ). Pleiotropic effects of polysaccharide capsule loss on selected biological properties of Streptococcus suis . . Can J Vet Res 74:, 65–70.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. van der Woude M. W. , Bäumler A. J. . ( 2004; ). Phase and antigenic variation in bacteria. . Clin Microbiol Rev 17:, 581–611. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Wertheim H. F. , Nghia H. D. , Taylor W. , Schultsz C. . ( 2009; ). Streptococcus suis: an emerging human pathogen. . Clin Infect Dis 48:, 617–625. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Willenborg J. , Fulde M. , de Greeff A. , Rohde M. , Smith H. E. , Valentin-Weigand P. , Goethe R. . ( 2011; ). Role of glucose and CcpA in capsule expression and virulence of Streptococcus suis . . Microbiology 157:, 1823–1833. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.034686-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.034686-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

vol. , part 11, pp. 1669 - 1676

[ PDF, 35 kb]: PCR scanning results Inserted sequences in the loci of unencapsulated isolates



PDF
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error