1887

Abstract

The serological laboratory workload in detecting toxoplasma infection may be expected to change with changes in the clinical profile of patient populations. We have examined the clinical information and laboratory results for patients referred to the Scottish Toxoplasma Reference Laboratory in April–March 1999–2000 and 2009–2010. Numbers of patient sera submitted for testing were similar (1624 and 1552) but there was a change in the clinical profile, with a significant fall in patients with symptoms of current infection (612 versus 335; <0.0001) and a significant rise in immunocompromised patients (275 versus 531; <0.0001). Although the percentage of patient samples with toxoplasma antibody decreased (53.9 % versus 37.5 %; <0.0001), the number of positives increased with age, demonstrating the continuing risk of toxoplasma infection. More cases of current infection were identified in 2009–2010 than in 1999–2000 (48 versus 35). This increase was significant both for all females with current infection ( = 0.0253) and also for those in the childbearing 20–39 years age group ( = 0.0388). Our literature search did not find any published information on toxoplasma workload in the last decade. In summary, we have shown that there have been significant changes in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasma infection but it is as important as ever that effective diagnostic strategies are maintained.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.032813-0
2011-12-01
2019-10-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/60/12/1762.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.032813-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Allain J. P., Palmer C. R., Pearson G.. ( 1998;). Epidemiological study of latent and recent infection by Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women from a regional population in the U.K. . J Infect 36:, 189–196. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ashburn D., Evans R., Skinner L. J., Chatterton J. M., Joss A. W., Ho-Yen D. O.. ( 1992;). Comparison of relative uses of commercial assays for Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies. . J Clin Pathol 45:, 483–486. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ashburn D., Joss A. W. L., Pennington T. H., Ho-Yen D. O.. ( 1998;). Do IgA, IgE, and IgG avidity tests have any value in the diagnosis of toxoplasma infection in pregnancy?. J Clin Pathol 51:, 312–315. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ashburn D., Evans R., Chatterton J. M. W., Joss A. W. L., Ho-Yen D. O.. ( 2000;). Toxoplasma dye test using cell culture derived tachyzoites. . J Clin Pathol 53:, 630–633. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cook A. J. C., Gilbert R. E., Buffolano W., Zufferey J., Petersen E., Jenum P. A., Foulon W., Semprini A. E., Dunn D. T..European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis ( 2000;). Sources of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case-control study. . BMJ 321:, 142–147. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Department of Health ( 2006;). Report of the Review of the NHS Pathology Services in England. Chaired by Lord Carter of Coles. http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4137606
  7. Evans R., Ashburn D., Chatterton J., Joss A., Ho-Yen D.. ( 2002;). How to detect current toxoplasma infection. . Br J Biomed Sci 59:, 4–6.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gilbert R. E., Tookey P. A., Cubitt W. D., Ades A. E., Masters J., Peckham C. S.. ( 1993;). Prevalence of toxoplasma IgG among pregnant women in west London according to country of birth and ethnic group. . BMJ 306:, 185. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Havelaar A. H., Kemmeren J. M., Kortbeek L. M.. ( 2007;). Disease burden of congenital toxoplasmosis. . Clin Infect Dis 44:, 1467–1474. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ho-Yen D. O.. ( 2001;). Use of the Scottish Toxoplasma Reference Laboratory. . SCIEH Wkly Rep 35:, 250–251.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ho-Yen D. O.. ( 2009;). Toxoplasmosis. . Medicine 37:, 665–667. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Ho-Yen D. O., Joss A. W. L.. ( 1992;). Human Toxoplasmosis. Oxford:: Oxford University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Jones J. L., Kruszon-Moran D., Sanders-Lewis K., Wilson M.. ( 2007;). Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States, 1999–2004, decline from the prior decade. . Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:, 405–410.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Joss A. W. L., Skinner L. J., Chatterton J. M. W., Chisholm S. M., Williams H. D., Ho-Yen D. O.. ( 1988;). Simultaneous serological screening for congenital cytomegalovirus and toxoplasma infection. . Public Health 102:, 409–417. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Joss A. W. L., Skinner L. J., Chatterton J. M. W., Cubie H. A., Pryde J. F. D., Campbell J. D.. ( 1989a;). Toxoplasmosis: effectiveness of enzyme immunoassay screening. . Med Lab Sci 46:, 107–112.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Joss A. W. L., Skinner L. J., Moir I. L., Chatterton J. M. W., Williams H. D., Ho-Yen D. O.. ( 1989b;). Biotin-labelled antigen screening test for toxoplasma IgM antibody. . J Clin Pathol 42:, 206–209. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kijlstra A., Jongert E.. ( 2009;). Toxoplasma-safe meat: close to reality?. Trends Parasitol 25:, 18–22. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Mavin S., Ashburn D., Chatterton J. M. W., Evans R., Joss A. W. L., Ho-Yen D. O.. ( 2000;). Patterns of toxoplasma infection during 1996–1999. . SCIEH Wkly Rep 34:, 278–280.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. McDonald J. M.. ( 1997;). Reference laboratory administrative reengineering. . Am J Clin Pathol 107:, 385–386.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Montoya J. G., Liesenfeld O.. ( 2004;). Toxoplasmosis. . Lancet 363:, 1965–1976. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Nash J. Q., Chissel S., Jones J., Warburton F., Verlander N. Q.. ( 2005;). Risk factors for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Kent, United Kingdom. . Epidemiol Infect 133:, 475–483. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nowakowska D., Stray-Pedersen B., Spiewak E., Sobala W., Małafiej E., Wilczyński J.. ( 2006;). Prevalence and estimated incidence of Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in Poland: a decreasing trend in the younger population. . Clin Microbiol Infect 12:, 913–917. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Pappas G., Roussos N., Falagas M. E.. ( 2009;). Toxoplasmosis snapshots: global status of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence and implications for pregnancy and congenital toxoplasmosis. . Int J Parasitol 39:, 1385–1394. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Taylor M. R., Lennon B., Holland C. V., Cafferkey M.. ( 1997;). Community study of toxoplasma antibodies in urban and rural schoolchildren aged 4 to 18 years. . Arch Dis Child 77:, 406–409. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Tenter A. M., Heckeroth A. R., Weiss L. M.. ( 2000;). Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. . Int J Parasitol 30:, 1217–1258. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Walker J., Nokes D. J., Jennings R.. ( 1992;). Longitudinal study of Toxoplasma seroprevalence in South Yorkshire. . Epidemiol Infect 108:, 99–106. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Williams K. A. B., Scott J. M., Macfarlane D. E., Williamson J. M. W., Elias-Jones T. F., Williams H.. ( 1981;). Congenital toxoplasmosis: a prospective survey in the West of Scotland. . J Infect 3:, 219–229. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Zadik P. M., Kudesia G., Siddons A. D.. ( 1995;). Low incidence of primary infection with toxoplasma among women in Sheffield: a seroconversion study. . Br J Obstet Gynaecol 102:, 608–610. [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.032813-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.032813-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error