1887

Abstract

Epidemiological investigations of often focus on differences between separate geographical areas. In this investigation, two populations of recovered from separate tertiary referral Trusts within the West Midlands, UK, were characterized using both PCR ribotyping and an optimized RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) protocol. The PCR ribotyping and RAPD methodologies identified differences between the two populations, in both the prevalence and the diversity of types identified. The use of PCR ribotyping in conjunction with RAPD further categorized different types within defined PCR ribotypes, identifying different types within the same PCR ribotype and therefore providing a greater discriminatory power than either of the methods when used alone. The differences observed in this study between the two Trusts in the distribution of both RAPD ‘type’ and PCR ribotype demonstrate the diversity that is present amongst isolates of within a relatively small geographical area and warrants a need for further investigation into the local epidemiology of .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.030999-0
2011-09-01
2020-01-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/60/9/1287.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.030999-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Barbut F. , Mario N. , Frottier J. , Petit J. C. . ( 1993; ). Use of the arbitrary primer polymerase chain reaction for investigating an outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in AIDS patients. . Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 12:, 794–795. [CrossRef].[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Barbut F. , Mario N. , Meyohas M. C. , Binet D. , Frottier J. , Petit J. C. . ( 1994; ). Investigation of a nosocomial outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea among AIDS patients by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay. . J Hosp Infect 26:, 181–189.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brazier J. S. . ( 1998; ). The epidemiology and typing of Clostridium difficile . . J Antimicrob Chemother 41: (Suppl. C), 47–57. [CrossRef].[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chachaty E. , Saulnier P. , Martin A. , Mario N. , Andremont A. . ( 1994; ). Comparison of ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA for typing Clostridium difficile strains. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 122:, 61–68. [CrossRef].[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Fawley W. N. , Freeman J. , Smith C. , Harmanus C. , van den Berg R. J. , Kuijper E. J. , Wilcox M. H. . ( 2008; ). Use of highly discriminatory fingerprinting to analyze clusters of Clostridium difficile infection cases due to epidemic ribotype 027 strains. . J Clin Microbiol 46:, 954–960. [CrossRef].[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Green L. M. , Worthington T. , Hilton A. C. , Lambert P. A. . ( 2010; ). Phenotypic characterisation of Clostridium difficile reveals lack of extracellular virulence factor production and significant differences in antibiogram profiles. . Int J Antimicrob Agents 35:, 305–306. [CrossRef].[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Health Protection Agency ( 2009; ). Clostridium difficile ribotyping network for England and Northern Ireland 2008/09 report. November 2009. . http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1258560554236.
  8. Health Protection Agency ( 2010; ). Quarterly Epidemiological Commentary Mandatory MRSA bacteraemia and Clostridium difficile infection (October 2007 to December 2009). . March 2010. http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1267551242367
  9. Killgore G. , Thompson A. , Johnson S. , Brazier J. S. , Kuijper E. , Pepin J. , Frost E. H. , Savelkoul P. , Nicholson B. et al. ( 2008; ). Comparison of seven techniques for typing international epidemic strains of Clostridium difficile: restriction endonuclease analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-ribotyping, multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and surface layer protein A gene sequence typing. . J Clin Microbiol 46:, 431–437. [CrossRef].[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kuijper E. J. , Barbut F. , Brazier J. S. , Kleinkauf N. , Eckmanns T. , Lambert M. L. , Drudy D. L. , Fitzpatrick F. , Wiuff C. et al. ( 2008; ). Update of Clostridium difficile infection due to PCR ribotype 027 in Europe, 2008. . Euro Surveill 13:, 433–439.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Loo V. G. , Poirier L. , Miller M. A. , Oughton M. , Libman M. D. , Michaud S. , Bourgault A. M. , Nguyen T. , Frenette C. et al. ( 2005; ). A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality. . N Engl J Med 353:, 2442–2449. [CrossRef].[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Marsh J. W. , O’Leary M. M. , Shutt K. A. , Pasculle A. W. , Johnson S. , Gerding D. N. , Muto C. A. , Harrison L. H. . ( 2006; ). Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis for investigation of Clostridium difficile transmission in hospitals. . J Clin Microbiol 44:, 2558–2566. [CrossRef].[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Martirosian G. , Kuipers S. , Verbrugh H. , van Belkum A. , Meisel-Mikolajczyk F. . ( 1995; ). PCR ribotyping and arbitrarily primed PCR for typing strains of Clostridium difficile from a Polish maternity hospital. . J Clin Microbiol 33:, 2016–2021.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. McDonald L. C. , Killgore G. E. , Thompson A. , Owens R. C. Jr , Kazakova S. V. , Sambol S. P. , Johnson S. , Gerding D. N. . ( 2005; ). An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile . . N Engl J Med 353:, 2433–2441. [CrossRef].[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Northey G. , Gal M. , Rahmati A. , Brazier J. S. . ( 2005; ). Subtyping of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 001 by REP-PCR and PFGE. . J Med Microbiol 54:, 543–547. [CrossRef].[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Rahmati A. , Gal M. , Northey G. , Brazier J. S. . ( 2005; ). Subtyping of Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotype 001 by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR genomic fingerprinting. . J Hosp Infect 60:, 56–60. [CrossRef].[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Stubbs S. L. , Brazier J. S. , O’Neill G. L. , Duerden B. I. . ( 1999; ). PCR targeted to the 16S–23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer region of Clostridium difficile and construction of a library consisting of 116 different PCR ribotypes. . J Clin Microbiol 37:, 461–463.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Tanner H. E. , Hardy K. J. , Hawkey P. M. . ( 2010; ). Coexistence of multiple multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis subtypes of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 strains within fecal specimens. . J Clin Microbiol 48:, 985–987. [CrossRef].[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. van den Berg R. J. , Schaap I. , Templeton K. E. , Klaassen C. H. W. , Kuijper E. J. . ( 2007; ). Typing and subtyping of Clostridium difficile isolates by using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis. . J Clin Microbiol 45:, 1024–1028. [CrossRef].[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. van Dijck P. , Avesani V. , Delmée M. . ( 1996; ). Genotyping of outbreak-related and sporadic isolates of Clostridium difficile belonging to serogroup C. . J Clin Microbiol 34:, 3049–3055.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Warny M. , Pepin J. , Fang A. , Killgore G. , Thompson A. , Brazier J. , Frost E. , McDonald L. C. . ( 2005; ). Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe. . Lancet 366:, 1079–1084. [CrossRef].[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.030999-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.030999-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error