1887

Abstract

The prevalence of and risk factors associated with extended-spectrum βlactamase (ESBL)-producing micro-organisms have not been well studied in healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to determine this in healthy individuals in Thailand. Stool samples and questionnaires obtained from 445 participants from three provinces in Thailand were analysed. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was assessed using phenotypic and genotypic methods. PCR analysis was performed to detect and group the genes. The prevalence of CTX-M-type ESBL-producing in the three provinces was as follows: 29.3 % in Nan (43/147), 29.9 % in Nakhon Si Thammarat (43/144) and 50.6 % in Kanchanaburi (78/154) (<0.001). Of the 445 samples, 33 (7.4 %), 1 (0.2 %) and 127 (28.5 %) isolates belonged to the gene groups I, III and IV, respectively. was the predominant member of the producing CTX-M-type ESBLs (40/43, 39/43 and 70/78 isolates in Nan, Nakhon Si Thammarat and Kanchanaburi, respectively). No statistically significant association was observed between the presence of ESBL-producing bacteria and gender, age, education, food habits or antibiotic usage. However, the provinces that had the highest prevalence of ESBL-producing also had the highest prevalence of use and purchase of antibiotics without a prescription. Thus, this study revealed that faecal carriage of ESBL-producing is very high in asymptomatic individuals in Thailand, with some variations among the provinces. This high prevalence may be linked to antibiotic abuse.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.026955-0
2011-05-01
2022-01-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/60/5/619.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.026955-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aubry-Damon H., Grenet K., Sall-Ndiaye P., Che D., Cordeiro E., Bougnoux M. E., Rigaud E., Le Strat Y., Lemanissier V. et al. 2004; Antimicrobial resistance in commensal flora of pig farmers. Emerg Infect Dis 10:873–879[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bailar J. C. III, Travers K. 2002; Review of assessments of the human health risk associated with the use of antimicrobial agents in agriculture. Clin Infect Dis 34:Suppl. 3S135–S143 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ben-Ami R., Rodríguez-Baño J., Arslan H., Pitout J. D., Quentin C., Calbo E. S., Azap O. K., Arpin C., Pascual A. et al. 2009; A multinational survey of risk factors for infection with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in nonhospitalized patients. Clin Infect Dis 49:682–690 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Briñas L., Moreno M. A., Teshager T., Sáenz Y., Porrero M. C., Domínguez L., Torres C. 2005; Monitoring and characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Escherichia coli strains from healthy and sick animals in Spain in 2003. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:1262–1264 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Coque T. M., Baquero F., Canton R. 2008; Increasing prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe. Euro Surveill 13:19044[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Drieux L., Brossier F., Sougakoff W., Jarlier V. 2008; Phenotypic detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production in Enterobacteriaceae: review and bench guide. Clin Microbiol Infect 14:Suppl. 190–103 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dutil L., Irwin R., Finley R., Ng L. K., Avery B., Boerlin P., Bourgault A. M., Cole L., Daignault D. et al. 2010; Ceftiofur resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg from chicken meat and humans, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis 16:48–54 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Goossens H., Ferech M., Vander Stichele R., Elseviers M. ESAC Project Group 2005; Outpatient antibiotic use in Europe and association with resistance: a cross-national database study. Lancet 365:579–587[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hawkey P. M., Jones A. M. 2009; The changing epidemiology of resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother 64:Suppl. 1i3–i10 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hawser S. P., Bouchillon S. K., Hoban D. J., Badal R. E., Hsueh P. R., Paterson D. L. 2009; Emergence of high levels of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli in the Asia-Pacific region: data from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) program, 2007. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:3280–3284 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kader A. A., Kumar A., Kamath K. A. 2007; Fecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in patients and asymptomatic healthy individuals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:1114–1116 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kiratisin P., Apisarnthanarak A., Laesripa C., Saifon P. 2008a; Molecular characterization and epidemiology of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates causing health care-associated infection in Thailand, where the CTX-M family is endemic. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:2818–2824 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kiratisin P., Chattammanat S., Sa-Nguansai S., Dansubutra B., Nangpatharapornthawee P., Patthamalai P., Tirachaimongkol N., Nunthanasup T. 2008b; A 2-year trend of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Thailand: an alert for infection control. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:460–464 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Larson E. 2007; Community factors in the development of antibiotic resistance. Annu Rev Public Health 28:435–447 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lautenbach E., Patel J. B., Bilker W. B., Edelstein P. H., Fishman N. O. 2001; Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: risk factors for infection and impact of resistance on outcomes. Clin Infect Dis 32:1162–1171 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lo W.-U., Ho P.-L., Chow K.-H., Lai E. L., Yeung F., Chiu S. S. 2010; Fecal carriage of CTXM type extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing organisms by children and their household contacts. J Infect 60:286–292 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Martínez J. L. 2008; Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in natural environments. Science 321:365–367 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Monstein H. J., Ostholm-Balkhed A., Nilsson M. V., Nilsson M., Dornbusch K., Nilsson L. E. 2007; Multiplex PCR amplification assay for the detection of bla SHV, bla TEM and bla CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae . APMIS 115:1400–1408 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Moubareck C., Daoud Z., Hakimé N. I., Hamzé M., Mangeney N., Matta H., Mokhbat J. E., Rohban R., Sarkis D. K., Doucet-Populaire F. 2005; Countrywide spread of community- and hospital-acquired extended-spectrum β-lactamase (CTX-M-15)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Lebanon. J Clin Microbiol 43:3309–3313 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Niumsup P. R., Tansawai U., Boonkerd N., Polwichai P., Dejsirilert S. 2008; Dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in Thai hospitals. J Infect Chemother 14:404–408 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Paterson D. L., Bonomo R. A. 2005; Extended-spectrum β-lactamases: a clinical update. Clin Microbiol Rev 18:657–686 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Pitout J. D., Laupland K. B. 2008; Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: an emerging public-health concern. Lancet Infect Dis 8:159–166 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Pitout J. D., Hossain A., Hanson N. D. 2004; Phenotypic and molecular detection of CTX-M-β-lactamases produced by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp.. J Clin Microbiol 42:5715–5721 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Roberts R. R., Hota B., Ahmad I., Scott R. D. II, Foster S. D., Abbasi F., Schabowski S., Kampe L. M., Ciavarella G. G. et al. 2009; Hospital and societal costs of antimicrobial-resistant infections in a Chicago teaching hospital: implications for antibiotic stewardship. Clin Infect Dis 49:1175–1184 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rodríguez-Baño J., Pascual A. 2008; Clinical significance of extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 6:671–683 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rodríguez-Baño J., Navarro M. D., Romero L., Muniain M. A., de Cueto M., Ríos M. J., Hernández J. R., Pascual A. 2006; Bacteremia due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in the CTX-M era: a new clinical challenge. Clin Infect Dis 43:1407–1414 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sasaki T., Hirai I., Niki M., Nakamura T., Komalamisra C., Maipanich W., Kusolsuk T., Sa-Nguankiat S., Pubampen S., Yamamoto Y. 2010; High prevalence of CTX-M β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in stool specimens obtained from healthy individuals in Thailand. J Antimicrob Chemother 65:666–668 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Swartz M. N. 2002; Human diseases caused by foodborne pathogens of animal origin. Clin Infect Dis 34:Suppl. 3S111–S122 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Tian S. F., Chen B. Y., Chu Y. Z., Wang S. 2008; Prevalence of rectal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli among elderly people in community settings in China. Can J Microbiol 54:781–785 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Valverde A., Coque T. M., Sánchez-Moreno M. P., Rollán A., Baquero F., Cantón R. 2004; Dramatic increase in prevalence of fecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae during nonoutbreak situations in Spain. J Clin Microbiol 42:4769–4775 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Yuan L., Liu J.-H., Hu G.-Z., Pan Y.-S., Liu Z.-M., Mo J., Wei Y.-J. 2009; Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates from chickens in Henan Province, China. J Med Microbiol 58:1449–1453 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.026955-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.026955-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error