1887

Abstract

The co-existence of multiple genotypes in colonization by has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the heterogeneity of carriage in children. We evaluated 125 nasal and perianal swab samples that were positive for from 76 children scheduled for elective surgery. For each sample, at least four colonies with the same or different morphotypes were selected for analysis. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting was used to determine the genetic relatedness and to characterize the clonality of the strains. Of the 125 swabs, 91 (73 %) contained meticillin-sensitive (MSSA), 8 (6 %) contained meticillin-resistant (MRSA), and 26 (21 %) contained MSSA and MRSA simultaneously. A total of 738 strains were evaluated with a mean of 6 colonies (range 4–15) picked from each culture. Of the 125 swabs, 32 (26 %) samples contained two genetically distinct strains and 6 (5 %) contained three different genotypes. Multiple strains simultaneously carried by individual children were genetically unrelated to each other. We concluded that the co-existence of multiple genotypes of was common. The significance of multiple carriage is yet to be determined, but this intraspecies interplay could be important to pathogenicity and virulence in .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.025841-0
2011-03-01
2019-10-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/60/3/317.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.025841-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bloemendaal, A. L., Fluit, A. C., Jansen, W. T., Vriens, M. R., Ferry, T., Amorim, J. M., Pascual, A., Stefani, S., Papaparaskevas, J. & other authors ( 2009; ). Colonization with multiple Staphylococcus aureus strains among patients in European intensive care units. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 30, 918–920.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Cespedes, C., Said-Salim, B., Miller, M., Lo, S. H., Kreiswirth, B. N., Gordon, R. J., Vavagiakis, P., Klein, R. S. & Lowy, F. D. ( 2005; ). The clonality of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage. J Infect Dis 191, 444–452.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Coen, P. G., Wilks, M., Dall'antonia, M. & Millar, M. ( 2006; ). Detection of multiple-strain carriers: the value of re-sampling. J Theor Biol 240, 98–103.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Dall'Antonia, M., Coen, P. G., Wilks, M., Whiley, A. & Millar, M. ( 2005; ). Competition between methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the anterior nares. J Hosp Infect 61, 62–67.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Goerke, C., Gressinger, M., Endler, K., Breitkopf, C., Wardecki, K., Stern, M., Wolz, C. & Kahl, B. C. ( 2007; ). High phenotypic diversity in infecting but not in colonizing Staphylococcus aureus populations. Environ Microbiol 9, 3134–3142.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Gray, B. M. ( 2002; ). Egg-based media for delayed processing of nasopharyngeal swabs in colonization studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 21, 666–670.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Herwaldt, L. A. ( 2003; ). Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and surgical-site infections. Surgery 134, S2–S9.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Hsu, L. Y., Koh, Y. L., Chlebicka, N. L., Tan, T. Y., Krishnan, P., Lin, R. T., Tee, N., Barkham, T. & Koh, T. H. ( 2006; ). Establishment of ST30 as the predominant clonal type among community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in Singapore. J Clin Microbiol 44, 1090–1093.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kampf, G. ( 2005; ). What should be done with nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriers? J Hosp Infect 61, 353–354.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Karynski, M., Sabat, A. J., Empel, J. & Hryniewicz, W. ( 2008; ). Molecular surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting (formerly multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis) and spa typing in a hierarchic approach. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 62, 255–262.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Keene, A., Vavagiakis, P., Lee, M. H., Finnerty, K., Nicolls, D., Cespedes, C., Quagliarello, B., Chiasson, M. A., Chong, D. & Lowy, F. D. ( 2005; ). Staphylococcus aureus colonization and the risk of infection in critically ill patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 26, 622–628.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kreft, B., Eckstein, S., Kahl, A., Frei, U., Witte, W. & Trautmann, M. ( 2001; ). Clinical and genetic analysis of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonisation and exit-site infection in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 20, 734–737.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Lebon, A., Labout, J. A. M., Verbrugh, H. A., Jaddoe, V. W. V., Hofman, A., Van Wamel, W., Moll, H. A. & Van Belkum, A. ( 2008; ). Dynamics and determinants of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in infancy: the Generation R Study. J Clin Microbiol 46, 3517–3521.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lim, M. S., Marshall, C. L. & Spelman, D. ( 2006; ). Carriage of multiple subtypes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by intensive care unit patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 27, 1063–1067.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lina, G., Boutite, F., Tristan, A., Bes, M., Etienne, J. & Vandenesch, F. ( 2003; ). Bacterial competition for human nasal cavity colonization: role of staphylococcal agr alleles. Appl Environ Microbiol 69, 18–23.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lomholt, H., Andersen, K. E. & Kilian, M. ( 2005; ). Staphylococcus aureus clonal dynamics and virulence factors in children with atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 125, 977–982.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Moser, S. A., Box, M. J., Patel, M., Amaya, M., Schelonka, R. & Waites, K. B. ( 2009; ). Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus discriminates within USA pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types. J Hosp Infect 71, 333–339.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Niven, D. J., Laupland, K. B., Gregson, D. B. & Church, D. L., the S. aureus Screening Initiative Group ( 2009; ). Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization and influence on outcome in the critically ill. J Crit Care 24, 583–589.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Paule, S. M., Pasquariello, A. C., Hacek, D. M., Fisher, A. G., Thomson, R. B., Jr, Kaul, K. L. & Peterson, L. R. ( 2004; ). Direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus from adult and neonate nasal swab specimens using real-time polymerase chain reaction. J Mol Diagn 6, 191–196.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Sabat, A., Malachowa, N., Miedzobrodzki, J. & Hryniewicz, W. ( 2006; ). Comparison of PCR-based methods for typing Staphylococcus aureus isolates. J Clin Microbiol 44, 3804–3807.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Stone, N. D., Lewis, D. R., Lowery, H. K., Darrow, L. A., Kroll, C. M., Gaynes, R. P., Jernigan, J. A., McGowan, J. E., Jr, Tenover, F. C. & Richards, C. L., Jr ( 2008; ). Importance of bacterial burden among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers in a long-term care facility. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 29, 143–148.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Tenover, F. C., Vaughn, R. R., McDougal, L. K., Fosheim, G. E. & McGowan, J. E., Jr ( 2007; ). Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat assay analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. J Clin Microbiol 45, 2215–2219.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Uehara, Y., Nakama, H., Agematsu, K., Uchida, M., Kawakami, Y., Abdul Fattah, A. S. & Maruchi, N. ( 2000; ). Bacterial interference among nasal inhabitants: eradication of Staphylococcus aureus from nasal cavities by artificial implantation of Corynebacterium sp. J Hosp Infect 44, 127–133.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Vegunta, R. K., Gray, B., Wallace, L. J., Mongkolrattanothai, K., Mankin, P., Stanfill, A. B. & Pearl, R. H. ( 2009; ). A prospective study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in children scheduled for elective surgery. J Pediatr Surg 44, 1197–1200.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Von Eiff, C., Becker, K., Machka, K., Stammer, H. & Peters, G. ( 2001; ). Nasal carriage as a source of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. N Engl J Med 344, 11–16.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Wenzel, R. P. & Perl, T. M. ( 1995; ). The significance of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and the incidence of postoperative wound infection. J Hosp Infect 31, 13–24.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Zhang, K., Sparling, J., Chow, B. L., Elsayed, S., Hussain, Z., Church, D. L., Gregson, D. B., Louie, T. & Conly, J. M. ( 2004; ). New quadriplex PCR assay for detection of methicillin and mupirocin resistance and simultaneous discrimination of Staphylococcus aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci. J Clin Microbiol 42, 4947–4955.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.025841-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.025841-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error