1887

Abstract

Organisms in the genus are Gram-positive, coagulase-negative, coccoid actinobacteria belonging to the family , suborder , order . Sporadic reports in the literature have dealt with infections by species, mostly in compromised hosts with serious underlying conditions. Nonetheless, the number of infectious processes caused by such bacteria may be higher than currently believed, given that misidentification by phenotypic assays has presumably affected estimates of the prevalence over the years. As a further cause for concern, guidelines for therapy of illnesses involving species are lacking, mostly due to the absence of established criteria for evaluating replication or growth inhibition in the presence of antibiotics. Therefore, breakpoints for staphylococci have been widely used throughout the literature to try to understand this pathogen's behaviour under drug exposure; unfortunately, this has sometimes created confusion, thus higlighting the urgent need for specific interpretive criteria, along with a deeper investigation into the resistance determinants within this genus. We therefore review the published data on cultural, genotypic and clinical aspects of the genus , aiming to shed some light on these emerging nosocomial pathogens.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.021709-0
2010-12-01
2019-10-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/59/12/1395.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.021709-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Altuntas, F., Yildiz, O., Eser, B., Gündogan, K., Sumerkan, B. & Cetin, M. ( 2004; ). Catheter-related bacteremia due to Kocuria rosea in a patient undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. BMC Infect Dis 4, 62.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Basaglia, G., Carretto, E., Barbarini, D., Moras, L., Scalone, S., Marone, P. & De Paoli, P. ( 2002; ). Catheter-related bacteremia due to Kocuria kristinae in a patient with ovarian cancer. J Clin Microbiol 40, 311–313.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Becker, K., Rutsch, F., Uekötter, A., Kipp, F., König, J., Marquardt, T., Peters, G. & von Eiff, C. ( 2008; ). Kocuria rhizophila adds to the emerging spectrum of micrococcal species involved in human infections. J Clin Microbiol 46, 3537–3539.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ben-Ami, R., Navon-Venezia, S., Schwartz, D. & Carmeli, Y. ( 2003; ). Infection of a ventriculoatrial shunt with phenotypically variable Staphylococcus epidermidis masquerading as polymicrobial bacteremia due to various coagulase-negative staphylococci and Kocuria varians. J Clin Microbiol 41, 2444–2447.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ben-Ami, R., Navon-Venezia, S., Schwartz, D., Schlezinger, Y., Mekuzas, Y. & Carmeli, Y. ( 2005; ). Erroneous reporting of coagulase-negative staphylococci as Kocuria spp. by the Vitek 2 system. J Clin Microbiol 43, 1448–1450.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bohácek, J., Kocur, M. & Martinec, T. ( 1969; ). Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Micrococcus roseus. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 35, 185–188.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Boudewijns, M., Vandeven, J., Verhaegen, J., Ben-Ami, R. & Carmeli, Y. ( 2005; ). Vitek 2 automated identification system and Kocuria kristinae. J Clin Microbiol 43, 5832.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. CLSI ( 2008; ). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; 18th Informational Supplement, M100-S18, vol. 28, no. 1. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
  9. Collins, M. D., Pirouz, T., Goodfellow, M. & Minnikin, D. E. ( 1977; ). Distribution of menaquinones in actinomycetes and corynebacteria. J Gen Microbiol 100, 221–230.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cooney, J. J. & Berry, R. A. ( 1981; ). Inhibition of carotenoid synthesis in Micrococcus roseus. Can J Microbiol 27, 421–425.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dunphy, P. J., Phillips, P. G. & Brodie, A. F. ( 1971; ). Separation and identification of menaquinones from microorganisms. J Lipid Res 12, 442–449.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Jagannadham, M. V., Rao, V. J. & Shivaji, S. ( 1991; ). The major carotenoid pigment of a psychrotrophic Micrococcus roseus strain: purification, structure, and interaction with synthetic membranes. J Bacteriol 173, 7911–7917.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kaya, K. E., Kurtoğlu, Y., Cesur, S., Bulut, C., Kinikli, S., Irmak, H., Demiröz, A. P. & Karakoç, E. ( 2009; ). Peritonitis due to Kocuria rosea in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis case. Mikrobiyol Bul 43, 335–337.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kim, S. B., Nedashkovskaya, O. I., Mikhailov, V. V., Han, S. K., Kim, K. O., Rhee, M. S. & Bae, K. S. ( 2004; ). Kocuria marina sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from marine sediment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 1617–1620.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kovács, G., Burghardt, J., Pradella, S., Schumann, P., Stackebrandt, E. & Màrialigeti, K. ( 1999; ). Kocuria palustris sp. nov. and Kocuria rhizophila sp. nov., isolated from the rhizoplane of the narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia). Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 167–173.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lai, C. C., Wang, J. Y., Lin, S. H., Tan, C. K., Wang, C. Y., Liao, C. H., Chou, C. H., Huang, Y. T., Lin, H. I. & Hsueh, P. R. ( 2010; ). Catheter-related bacteremia and infective endocarditis caused by Kocuria species. Clin Microbiol Infect (in press).
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Lee, J. Y., Kim, S. H., Jeong, H. S., Oh, S. H., Kim, H. R., Kim, Y. H., Lee, J. N., Kook, J. K., Kho, W. G. & other authors ( 2009; ). Two cases of peritonitis caused by Kocuria marina in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Clin Microbiol 47, 3376–3378.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Li, W. J., Zhang, Y. Q., Schumann, P., Chen, H. H., Hozzein, W. N., Tian, X. P., Xu, L. H. & Jiang, C. L. ( 2006; ). Kocuria aegyptia sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from a saline, alkaline desert soil in Egypt. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 733–737.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Ma, E. S., Wong, C. L., Lai, K. T., Chan, E. C., Yam, W. C. & Chan, A. C. ( 2005; ). Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. BMC Infect Dis 5, 60.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Mashouf, R. Y., Babalhavaeji, H. & Yousef, J. ( 2009; ). Urinary tract infections: bacteriology and antibiotic resistance patterns. Indian Pediatr 46, 617–620.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mayilraj, S., Kroppenstedt, R. M., Suresh, K. & Saini, H. S. ( 2006; ). Kocuria himachalensis sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from the Indian Himalayas. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 1971–1975.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ogasawara-Fujita, N. & Sakaguchi, K. ( 1976; ). Classification of micrococci on the basis of deoxyribonucleic acid homology. J Gen Microbiol 94, 97–106.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Park, E. J., Kim, M. S., Roh, S. W., Jung, M. J. & Bae, J. W. ( 2010a; ). Kocuria atrinae sp. nov., isolated from traditional Korean fermented seafood. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60, 914–918.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Park, E. J., Roh, S. W., Kim, M. S., Jung, M. J., Shin, K. S. & Bae, J. W. ( 2010b; ). Kocuria koreensis sp. nov., isolated from fermented seafood. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60, 140–143.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rainey, F. A., Ward-Rainey, N., Kroppenstedt, R. M. & Stackebrandt, E. ( 1996; ). The genus Nocardiopsis represents a phylogenetically coherent taxon and a distinct actinomycete lineage: proposal of Nocardiopsaceae fam. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46, 1088–1092.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Rainey, F. A., Nobre, M. F., Schumann, P., Stackebrandt, E. & da Costa, M. S. ( 1997; ). Phylogenetic diversity of the deinococci as determined by 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47, 510–514.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Reddy, G. S., Prakash, J. S., Prabahar, V., Matsumoto, G. I., Stackebrandt, E. & Shivaji, S. ( 2003; ). Kocuria polaris sp. nov., an orange-pigmented psychrophilic bacterium isolated from an Antarctic cyanobacterial mat sample. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 183–187.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Rosenthal, R. S. & Dziarski, R. ( 1994; ). Isolation of peptidoglycan and soluble peptidoglycan fragments. Methods Enzymol 235, 253–285.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Savini, V., Catavitello, C., Bianco, A., Balbinot, A. & D'Antonio, D. ( 2009a; ). Epidemiology, pathogenicity and emerging resistances in Staphylococcus pasteuri: from mammals and lampreys, to man. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov 4, 123–129.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Savini, V., Catavitello, C., Talia, M., Balbinot, A., Febbo, F., Pompilio, A., Di Bonaventura, G., Piccolomini, R. & D'Antonio, D. ( 2009b; ). Isolation of colistin-resistant Hafnia alvei. J Med Microbiol 58, 278–280.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Savini, V., Catavitello, C., Astolfi, D., Balbinot, A., Masciarelli, G., Pompilio, A., Quaglietta, A. M., Accorsi, P., Di Bonaventura, G. & other authors ( 2010; ). Bacterial contamination of platelets and septic transfusions: review of the literature and discussion on recent patents about biofilm treatment. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov 5, 168–176.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Schleifer, K. H. & Kandler, O. ( 1972; ). Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell walls and their taxonomic implications. Bacteriol Rev 36, 407–477.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Schumann, P., Tindall, B. J., Mendrock, U., Kramer, I. & Stackebrandt, E. ( 2000; ). Pelczaria aurantia ATCC 49321T (=DSM 12801T) is a strain of Kocuria rosea (Flügge 1886) Stackebrandt et al. 1995. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50, 1421–1424.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Schwartzel, E. H. & Cooney, J. J. ( 1970; ). Isolation and identification of echinenone from Micrococcus roseus. J Bacteriol 104, 272–274.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Schwartzel, E. M. & Cooney, J. J. ( 1972; ). Isolation of 4′-hydroxyechinenone from Micrococcus roseus. J Bacteriol 112, 1422–1424.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Seo, Y. B., Kim, D. E., Kim, G. D., Kim, H. W., Nam, S. W., Kim, Y. T. & Lee, J. H. ( 2009; ). Kocuria gwangalliensis sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from seawater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59, 2769–2772.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Stackebrandt, E., Koch, C., Gvozdiak, O. & Schumann, P. ( 1995; ). Taxonomic dissection of the genus Micrococcus: Kocuria gen. nov., Nesterenkonia gen. nov., Kytococcus gen. nov., Dermacoccus gen. nov., and Micrococcus Cohn 1872 gen. emend. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45, 682–692.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Staneck, J. L. & Roberts, G. D. ( 1974; ). Simplified approach to identification of aerobic actinomycetes by thin-layer chromatography. Appl Microbiol 28, 226–231.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Szczerba, I. ( 2003; ). Susceptibility to antibiotics of bacteria from genera Micrococcus, Kocuria, Nesterenkonia, Kytococcus and Dermacoccus. Med Dosw Mikrobiol 55, 75–80.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Takarada, H., Semine, M., Kosugi, H., Matsuo, Y., Fujisawa, T., Omata, S., Kishi, E., Shimizu, A., Tsukatani, N. & other authors ( 2008; ). Complete genome sequence of the soil actinomycete Kocuria rhizophila. J Bacteriol 190, 4139–4146.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Tang, J. S. & Gillevet, P. M. ( 2003; ). Reclassification of ATCC 9341 from Micrococcus luteus to Kocuria rhizophila. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53, 995–997.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Tang, S. K., Wang, Y., Lou, K., Mao, P. H., Xu, L. H., Jiang, C. L., Kim, C. J. & Li, W. J. ( 2009; ). Kocuria halotolerans sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from a saline soil in China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59, 1316–1320.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Thierry, O. C. & Cooney, J. J. ( 1966; ). Physicochemical factors influencing growth and pigment synthesis by Micrococcus roseus. Can J Microbiol 12, 691–698.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Tvrzová, L., Schumann, P., Sedlácek, I., Pácová, Z., Spröer, C., Verbarg, S. & Kroppenstedt, R. M. ( 2005; ). Reclassification of strain CCM 132, previously classified as Kocuria varians, as Kocuria carniphila sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 139–142.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Ungers, G. E. & Cooney, J. J. ( 1968; ). Isolation and characterization of carotenoid pigments of Micrococcus roseus. J Bacteriol 96, 234–241.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Yun, J. H., Roh, S. W., Jung, M. J., Kim, M. S., Park, E. J., Shin, K. S., Nam, Y. D. & Bae, J. W. ( 2010; ). Kocuria salsicia sp. nov., isolated from salt-fermented seafood. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol (in press ).
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Zhou, G., Luo, X., Tang, Y., Zhang, L., Yang, Q., Qiu, Y. & Fang, C. ( 2008; ). Kocuria flava sp. nov. and Kocuria turfanensis sp. nov., airborne actinobacteria isolated from Xinjiang, China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 1304–1307.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.021709-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.021709-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error