1887

Abstract

The mouse disease model has the advantage of a broad array of immunological and genetic tools available for basic research. Some studies on transgenic and/or mutant mouse strains as models for experimental leptospirosis have been reported; however, the wider use of such models is hampered by a poor understanding of the outcome of experimental leptospiral infection among the different mouse strains available. Here, the outcome of infection by a virulent strain of serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strain Cop was studied in four commonly used wild-type mouse strains: A, CBA, BALB/c and C57BL/6. The end points evaluated in this study were survival, presence of kidney lesions, leptospiral load in kidney samples, microscopic agglutination test titre and anti-leptospiral IgG antibody levels. As expected, none of the mouse strains were susceptible to lethal leptospirosis. However, these strains developed specific pathologies associated with sublethal leptospirosis. The A and C57BL/6 strains exhibited a high leptospiral load in kidney samples and the CBA and C57BL/6 strains developed severe inflammatory lesions, whilst the BALB/c strain proved to be the most resistant to subclinical leptospirosis.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.021089-0
2010-09-01
2019-11-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/59/9/1101.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.021089-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adler, B. & Faine, S. ( 1977; ). Host immunological mechanisms in the resistance of mice to leptospiral infections. Infect Immun 17, 67–72.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Arean, V. M. ( 1962; ). The pathologic anatomy and pathogenesis of fatal human leptospirosis (Weil's disease). Am J Pathol 40, 393–423.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Athanazio, D. A., Santos, C. S., Santos, A. C., McBride, F. W. C. & Reis, M. G. ( 2008a; ). Experimental infection in tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and interleukin 4 deficient mice by pathogenic Leptospira interrogans. Acta Trop 105, 95–98.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Athanazio, D. A., Silva, E. F., Santos, C. S., Rocha, G. M., Vannier-Santos, M. A., McBride, A. J. A., Ko, A. I. & Reis, M. G. ( 2008b; ). Rattus norvegicus as a model for persistent renal colonization by pathogenic Leptospira interrogans. Acta Trop 105, 176–180.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Barral-Netto, M., Cardoso, S. A. & Barral, A. ( 1987; ). Different patterns of disease in two inbred mouse strains infected with a clone of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Acta Trop 44, 5–11.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chagas-Junior, A. D., McBride, A. J., Athanazio, D. A., Figueira, C. P., Medeiros, M. A., Reis, M. G., Ko, A. I. & McBride, F. C. ( 2009; ). An imprint method for detecting leptospires in the hamster model of vaccine-mediated immunity for leptospirosis. J Med Microbiol 58, 1632–1637.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chassin, C., Picardeau, M., Goujon, J. M., Bourhy, P., Quellard, N., Darche, S., Badell, E., d'Andon, M. F., Winter, N. & other authors ( 2009; ). TLR4- and TLR2-mediated B cell responses control the clearance of the bacterial pathogen, Leptospira interrogans. J Immunol 183, 2669–2677.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. da Silva, J. B., Ramos, T. M., de Franco, M., Paiva, D., Ho, P. L., Martins, E. A. & Pereira, M. M. ( 2009; ). Chemokines expression during Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni infection in resistant BALB/c and susceptible C3H/HeJ mice. Microb Pathog 47, 87–93.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Faine, S. ( 1962; ). The growth of Leptospira australis B in the kidneys of mice in the incipient experimental carrier state. J Hyg (Lond) 60, 435–442.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Koizumi, N. & Watanabe, H. ( 2004; ). Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like proteins elicit protective immunity. Vaccine 22, 1545–1552.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. McBride, A. J., Athanazio, D. A., Reis, M. G. & Ko, A. I. ( 2005; ). Leptospirosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 18, 376–386.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Nally, J. E., Chantranuwat, C., Wu, X. Y., Fishbein, M. C., Pereira, M. M., Da Silva, J. J., Blanco, D. R. & Lovett, M. A. ( 2004; ). Alveolar septal deposition of immunoglobulin and complement parallels pulmonary hemorrhage in a guinea pig model of severe pulmonary leptospirosis. Am J Pathol 164, 1115–1127.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Nally, J. E., Fishbein, M. C., Blanco, D. R. & Lovett, M. A. ( 2005a; ). Lethal infection of C3H/HeJ and C3H/SCID mice with an isolate of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni. Infect Immun 73, 7014–7017.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Nally, J. E., Chow, E., Fishbein, M. C., Blanco, D. R. & Lovett, M. A. ( 2005b; ). Changes in lipopolysaccharide O antigen distinguish acute versus chronic Leptospira interrogans infections. Infect Immun 73, 3251–3260.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Silva, E. F., Santos, C. S., Athanazio, D. A., Seyffert, N., Seixas, F. K., Cerqueira, G. M., Fagundes, M. Q., Brod, C. S., Reis, M. G. & other authors ( 2008; ). Characterization of virulence of Leptospira isolates in a hamster model. Vaccine 26, 3892–3896.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Spichler, A., Ko, A. I., Silva, E. F., de Brito, T., Silva, A. M., Athanazio, D., Silva, C. & Seguro, A. ( 2007; ). Reversal of renal tubule transporter down-regulation during severe leptospirosis with antimicrobial therapy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77, 1111–1119.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Viriyakosol, S., Matthias, M. A., Swancutt, M. A., Kirkland, T. N. & Vinetz, J. M. ( 2006; ). Toll-like receptor 4 protects against lethal Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae infection and contributes to in vivo control of leptospiral burden. Infect Immun 74, 887–895.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Werts, C., Tapping, R. I., Mathison, J. C., Chuang, T.-H., Kravchenko, V., Saint Girons, I., Haake, D. A., Godowski, P. J., Hayashi, F. & other authors ( 2001; ). Leptospiral lipopolysaccharide activates cells through a TLR2-dependent mechanism. Nat Immunol 2, 346–352.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. WHO ( 2003; ). Serological techniques (MAT and ELISA). In Human Leptospirosis: Guidance for Diagnosis, Surveillance and Control, pp. 63–66. Malta: World Health Organization.
  20. Yang, C.-W., Wu, M.-S., Pan, M.-J., Hong, J.-J., Yu, C.-C., Vandewalle, A. & Huang, C.-C. ( 2000; ). Leptospira outer membrane protein activates NF-κB and downstream genes expressed in medullary thick ascending limb cells. J Am Soc Nephrol 11, 2017–2026.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Yang, C.-W., Wu, M.-S., Pan, M.-J., Hsieh, W.-J., Vandewalle, A. & Huang, C.-C. ( 2002; ). The leptospira outer membrane protein LipL32 induces tubulointerstitial nephritis-mediated gene expression in mouse proximal tubule cells. J Am Soc Nephrol 13, 2037–2045.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Yang, C.-W., Hung, C.-C., Wu, M.-S., Tian, Y.-C., Chang, C.-T., Pan, M.-J. & Vandewalle, A. ( 2006; ). Toll-like receptor 2 mediates early inflammation by leptospiral outer membrane proteins in proximal tubule cells. Kidney Int 69, 815–822.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.021089-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.021089-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error