1887

Abstract

This study was conducted to detect and analyse the presence of extended-spectrum -lactamase (ESBL)-producing associated with a nosocomial outbreak at a Croatian hospital. During 2007, 162 isolates with reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins were collected from various hospital units and patient specimens. Most of the strains were isolated from urine (61 %), followed by blood cultures (13 %), wound swabs (13 %), tracheal aspirates (5 %), intra-abdominal abscess aspirates (4 %), intravascular catheters (3 %) and cerebrospinal fluid (1 %). Medical wards were the most important source of the isolates (46 %); 21 % of the isolates originated from surgical intensive-care units. All patients had infections acquired during their stay in hospital. No community-acquired infections were reported. Sixty of these isolates were chosen for further analysis. A double-disc synergy test (DDST) was used to detect ESBLs. MICs were determined by the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. The transferability of ceftazidime resistance was tested by conjugation (broth mating method). PCR was used to detect alleles encoding ESBL enzymes. Plasmids encoding ESBLs were extracted with the Macherey Nagel Mini kit according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The genotypes of the strains were compared by analysis of banding patterns generated by PFGE of I-digested genomic DNA. ESBLs were found by DDST in all isolates. All strains were resistant to cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, piperacillin/tazobactam and ciprofloxacin. There was variable susceptibility/resistance to cefepime and gentamicin. No resistance to ceftazidime/clavulanate and carbapenems was observed. Only six strains transferred resistance to an recipient strain, with low frequency. All isolates yielded an amplicon of 545 bp with consensus MA primers. Multiplex PCR was positive for group 1 CTX-M -lactamases. Sequencing of selected amplicons revealed the presence of , with coding regions containing identical nucleotide sequences. Similarly to isolates from India, our isolates contained the IS insertion sequence located upstream of the gene, which has recently been demonstrated to mobilize 3′-adjacent genes to transfer between DNA replicons. The isolates contained a large plasmid of approximately 150 kb. The isolates were assigned to five clusters (>85 % similarity), which contained subclusters. The results of this work provided insights into the molecular epidemiology of the spread of ESBLs in involved in an outbreak at a Croatian hospital. The hospital antibiotic policy resulted in ceftriaxone being the most heavily prescribed third-generation cephalosporin, which might be expected to select for cefotaximases such as CTX-M-15.

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2010-09-01
2019-11-12
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